DXR is a code search and navigation tool aimed at making sense of large projects. It supports full-text and regex searches as well as structural queries.

Untracked file

Line Code
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129 130 131 132 133 134 135 136 137 138 139 140 141 142 143 144 145 146 147 148 149 150 151 152 153 154 155 156 157 158 159 160 161 162 163 164 165 166 167 168 169 170 171 172 173 174 175 176 177 178 179 180 181 182 183 184 185 186 187 188 189 190 191 192 193 194 195 196 197 198 199 200 201 202 203 204 205 206 207 208 209 210 211 212 213 214 215 216 217 218 219 220 221 222 223 224 225 226 227 228 229 230 231 232 233 234 235 236 237 238 239 240 241 242 243 244 245 246 247 248 249 250 251 252 253 254 255 256 257 258 259 260 261 262 263 264 265 266 267 268 269 270 271 272 273 274 275 276 277 278 279 280 281 282 283 284 285 286 287 288 289 290 291 292 293 294 295 296 297 298 299 300 301 302 303 304 305 306 307 308 309 310 311 312 313 314 315 316 317 318 319 320 321 322 323 324 325 326 327 328 329 330 331 332 333 334 335 336 337 338 339 340 341 342 343 344 345 346 347 348 349 350 351 352 353 354 355 356 357 358 359 360 361 362 363 364 365 366 367 368 369 370 371 372 373 374 375 376 377 378 379 380 381 382 383 384 385 386 387 388 389 390 391 392 393 394 395 396 397 398 399 400 401 402 403 404 405 406 407 408 409 410 411 412 413 414 415 416 417 418 419 420 421 422 423 424 425 426 427 428 429 430 431 432 433 434 435 436 437 438 439 440 441 442 443 444 445 446 447 448 449 450 451 452 453 454 455 456 457 458 459 460 461 462 463 464 465 466 467 468 469 470 471 472 473 474 475 476 477 478 479 480 481 482 483 484 485 486 487 488 489 490 491 492 493 494 495 496 497 498 499 500 501 502 503 504 505 506 507 508 509 510 511 512 513 514 515 516 517 518 519 520 521 522 523 524 525 526 527 528 529 530 531 532 533 534 535 536 537 538 539 540 541 542 543 544 545 546 547 548 549 550 551 552 553 554 555 556 557 558 559 560 561 562 563 564 565 566 567 568 569 570 571 572 573 574 575 576 577 578 579 580 581 582 583 584 585 586 587 588 589 590 591 592 593 594 595 596 597 598 599 600 601 602 603 604 605 606 607 608 609 610 611 612 613 614 615 616 617 618 619 620 621 622 623 624 625 626 627 628 629 630 631 632 633 634 635 636 637 638 639 640 641 642 643 644 645 646 647 648 649 650 651 652 653 654 655 656 657 658 659 660 661 662 663 664 665 666 667 668 669 670 671 672 673 674 675 676 677 678 679 680 681 682 683 684 685 686 687 688 689 690 691 692 693 694 695 696 697 698 699 700 701 702 703 704 705 706 707 708 709 710 711 712 713 714 715 716 717 718 719 720 721 722 723 724 725 726 727 728 729 730 731 732 733 734 735 736 737 738 739 740 741 742 743 744 745 746 747 748 749 750 751 752 753 754 755 756 757 758 759 760 761 762 763 764 765 766 767 768 769 770 771 772 773 774 775 776 777 778 779 780 781 782 783 784 785 786 787 788 789 790 791 792 793 794 795 796 797 798 799 800 801 802 803 804 805 806 807 808 809 810 811 812 813 814 815 816 817 818 819 820 821 822 823 824 825 826 827 828 829 830 831 832 833 834 835 836 837 838 839 840 841 842 843 844 845 846 847 848 849 850 851 852 853 854 855 856 857 858 859 860 861 862 863 864 865 866 867 868 869 870 871 872 873 874 875 876 877 878 879 880 881 882 883 884 885 886 887 888 889 890 891 892 893 894 895 896 897 898 899 900 901 902 903 904 905 906 907 908 909 910 911 912 913 914 915 916 917 918 919 920 921 922 923 924 925 926 927 928 929 930 931 932 933 934 935 936 937 938 939 940 941 942 943 944 945 946 947 948 949 950 951 952 953 954 955 956 957 958 959 960 961 962 963 964 965 966 967 968 969 970 971 972 973 974 975 976 977 978 979 980 981 982 983 984 985 986 987 988 989 990 991 992 993 994 995 996 997 998 999 1000 1001 1002 1003 1004 1005 1006 1007 1008 1009 1010 1011 1012 1013 1014 1015 1016 1017 1018 1019 1020 1021 1022 1023 1024 1025 1026 1027 1028 1029 1030 1031 1032 1033 1034 1035 1036 1037 1038 1039 1040 1041 1042 1043 1044 1045 1046 1047 1048 1049 1050 1051 1052 1053 1054 1055 1056 1057 1058 1059 1060 1061 1062 1063 1064 1065 1066 1067 1068 1069 1070 1071 1072 1073 1074 1075 1076 1077 1078 1079 1080 1081 1082 1083 1084 1085 1086 1087 1088 1089 1090 1091 1092 1093 1094 1095 1096 1097 1098 1099 1100 1101 1102 1103 1104 1105 1106 1107 1108 1109 1110 1111 1112 1113 1114 1115 1116 1117 1118 1119 1120 1121 1122 1123 1124 1125 1126 1127 1128 1129 1130 1131 1132 1133 1134 1135 1136 1137 1138 1139 1140 1141 1142 1143 1144 1145 1146 1147 1148 1149 1150 1151 1152 1153 1154 1155 1156 1157 1158 1159 1160 1161 1162 1163 1164 1165 1166 1167 1168 1169 1170 1171 1172 1173 1174 1175 1176 1177 1178 1179 1180 1181 1182 1183 1184 1185 1186 1187 1188 1189 1190 1191 1192 1193 1194 1195 1196 1197 1198 1199 1200 1201 1202 1203 1204 1205 1206 1207 1208 1209 1210 1211 1212 1213 1214 1215 1216 1217 1218 1219 1220 1221 1222 1223 1224 1225 1226 1227 1228 1229 1230 1231 1232 1233 1234 1235 1236 1237 1238 1239 1240 1241 1242 1243 1244 1245 1246 1247 1248 1249 1250 1251 1252 1253 1254 1255 1256 1257 1258 1259 1260 1261 1262 1263 1264 1265 1266 1267 1268 1269 1270 1271 1272 1273 1274 1275 1276 1277 1278 1279 1280 1281 1282 1283 1284 1285 1286 1287 1288 1289 1290 1291 1292 1293 1294 1295 1296 1297 1298 1299 1300 1301 1302 1303 1304 1305 1306 1307 1308 1309 1310 1311 1312 1313 1314 1315 1316 1317 1318 1319 1320 1321 1322 1323 1324 1325 1326 1327 1328 1329 1330 1331 1332 1333 1334 1335 1336 1337 1338 1339 1340 1341 1342 1343 1344 1345 1346 1347 1348 1349 1350 1351 1352 1353 1354 1355 1356 1357 1358 1359 1360 1361 1362 1363 1364 1365 1366 1367 1368 1369 1370 1371 1372 1373 1374 1375 1376 1377 1378 1379 1380 1381 1382 1383 1384 1385 1386 1387 1388 1389 1390 1391 1392 1393 1394 1395 1396 1397 1398 1399 1400 1401 1402 1403 1404 1405 1406 1407 1408 1409 1410 1411 1412 1413 1414 1415 1416 1417 1418 1419 1420 1421 1422 1423 1424 1425 1426 1427 1428 1429 1430 1431 1432 1433 1434 1435 1436 1437 1438 1439 1440 1441 1442 1443 1444 1445 1446 1447 1448 1449 1450 1451 1452 1453 1454 1455 1456 1457 1458 1459 1460 1461 1462 1463 1464 1465 1466 1467 1468 1469 1470 1471 1472 1473 1474 1475 1476 1477 1478 1479 1480 1481 1482 1483 1484 1485 1486 1487 1488 1489 1490 1491 1492 1493 1494 1495 1496 1497 1498 1499 1500 1501 1502 1503 1504 1505 1506 1507 1508 1509 1510 1511 1512 1513 1514 1515 1516 1517 1518 1519 1520 1521 1522 1523 1524 1525 1526 1527 1528 1529 1530 1531 1532 1533 1534 1535 1536 1537 1538 1539 1540 1541 1542 1543 1544 1545 1546 1547 1548 1549 1550 1551 1552 1553 1554 1555 1556 1557 1558 1559 1560 1561 1562 1563 1564 1565 1566 1567 1568 1569 1570 1571 1572 1573 1574 1575 1576 1577 1578 1579 1580 1581 1582 1583 1584 1585 1586 1587 1588 1589 1590 1591 1592 1593 1594 1595 1596 1597 1598 1599 1600 1601 1602 1603 1604 1605 1606 1607 1608 1609 1610 1611 1612 1613 1614 1615 1616 1617 1618 1619 1620 1621 1622 1623 1624 1625 1626 1627 1628 1629 1630 1631 1632 1633 1634 1635 1636 1637 1638 1639 1640 1641 1642 1643 1644 1645 1646 1647 1648 1649 1650 1651 1652 1653 1654 1655 1656 1657 1658 1659 1660 1661 1662 1663 1664 1665 1666 1667 1668 1669 1670 1671 1672 1673 1674 1675 1676 1677 1678 1679 1680 1681 1682 1683 1684 1685 1686 1687 1688 1689 1690 1691 1692 1693 1694 1695 1696 1697 1698 1699 1700 1701 1702 1703 1704 1705 1706 1707 1708 1709 1710 1711 1712 1713 1714 1715 1716 1717 1718 1719 1720 1721 1722 1723 1724 1725 1726 1727 1728 1729 1730 1731 1732 1733 1734 1735 1736 1737 1738 1739 1740 1741 1742 1743 1744 1745 1746 1747 1748 1749 1750 1751 1752 1753 1754 1755 1756 1757 1758 1759 1760 1761 1762 1763 1764 1765 1766 1767 1768 1769 1770 1771 1772 1773 1774 1775 1776 1777 1778 1779 1780 1781 1782 1783 1784 1785 1786 1787 1788 1789 1790 1791 1792 1793 1794 1795 1796 1797 1798 1799 1800 1801 1802 1803 1804 1805 1806 1807 1808 1809 1810 1811 1812 1813 1814 1815 1816 1817 1818 1819 1820 1821 1822 1823 1824 1825 1826 1827 1828 1829 1830 1831 1832 1833 1834 1835 1836 1837 1838 1839 1840 1841 1842 1843 1844 1845 1846 1847 1848 1849 1850 1851 1852 1853 1854 1855 1856 1857 1858 1859 1860 1861 1862 1863 1864 1865 1866 1867 1868 1869 1870 1871 1872 1873 1874 1875 1876 1877 1878 1879 1880 1881 1882 1883 1884 1885 1886 1887 1888 1889 1890 1891 1892 1893 1894 1895 1896 1897 1898 1899 1900 1901 1902 1903 1904 1905 1906 1907 1908 1909 1910 1911 1912 1913 1914 1915 1916 1917 1918 1919 1920 1921 1922 1923 1924 1925 1926 1927 1928 1929 1930 1931 1932 1933 1934 1935 1936 1937 1938 1939 1940 1941 1942 1943 1944 1945 1946 1947 1948 1949 1950 1951 1952 1953 1954 1955 1956 1957 1958 1959 1960 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965 1966 1967 1968 1969 1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2021 2022 2023 2024 2025 2026 2027 2028 2029 2030 2031 2032 2033 2034 2035 2036 2037 2038 2039 2040 2041 2042 2043 2044 2045 2046 2047 2048 2049 2050 2051 2052 2053 2054 2055 2056 2057 2058 2059 2060 2061 2062 2063 2064 2065 2066 2067 2068 2069 2070 2071 2072 2073 2074 2075 2076 2077 2078 2079 2080 2081 2082 2083 2084 2085 2086 2087 2088 2089 2090 2091 2092 2093 2094 2095 2096 2097 2098 2099 2100 2101 2102 2103 2104 2105 2106 2107 2108 2109 2110 2111 2112 2113 2114 2115 2116 2117 2118 2119 2120 2121 2122 2123 2124 2125 2126 2127 2128 2129 2130 2131 2132 2133 2134 2135 2136 2137 2138 2139 2140 2141 2142 2143 2144 2145 2146 2147 2148 2149 2150 2151 2152 2153 2154 2155 2156 2157 2158 2159 2160 2161 2162 2163 2164 2165 2166 2167 2168 2169 2170 2171 2172 2173 2174 2175 2176 2177 2178 2179 2180 2181 2182 2183 2184 2185 2186 2187 2188 2189 2190 2191 2192 2193 2194 2195 2196 2197 2198 2199 2200 2201 2202 2203 2204 2205 2206 2207 2208 2209 2210 2211 2212 2213 2214 2215 2216 2217 2218 2219 2220 2221 2222 2223 2224 2225 2226 2227 2228 2229 2230 2231 2232 2233 2234 2235 2236 2237 2238 2239 2240 2241 2242 2243 2244 2245 2246 2247 2248 2249 2250 2251 2252 2253 2254 2255 2256 2257 2258 2259 2260 2261 2262 2263 2264 2265 2266 2267 2268 2269 2270 2271 2272 2273 2274 2275 2276 2277 2278 2279
# configobj.py
# A config file reader/writer that supports nested sections in config files.
# Copyright (C) 2005-2006 Michael Foord, Nicola Larosa
# E-mail: fuzzyman AT voidspace DOT org DOT uk
#         nico AT tekNico DOT net

# ConfigObj 4
# http://www.voidspace.org.uk/python/configobj.html

# Released subject to the BSD License
# Please see http://www.voidspace.org.uk/python/license.shtml

# Scripts maintained at http://www.voidspace.org.uk/python/index.shtml
# For information about bugfixes, updates and support, please join the
# ConfigObj mailing list:
# http://lists.sourceforge.net/lists/listinfo/configobj-develop
# Comments, suggestions and bug reports welcome.

from __future__ import generators

import sys
INTP_VER = sys.version_info[:2]
if INTP_VER < (2, 2):
    raise RuntimeError("Python v.2.2 or later needed")

import os, re
compiler = None
try:
    import compiler
except ImportError:
    # for IronPython
    pass
from types import StringTypes
from warnings import warn
try:
    from codecs import BOM_UTF8, BOM_UTF16, BOM_UTF16_BE, BOM_UTF16_LE
except ImportError:
    # Python 2.2 does not have these
    # UTF-8
    BOM_UTF8 = '\xef\xbb\xbf'
    # UTF-16, little endian
    BOM_UTF16_LE = '\xff\xfe'
    # UTF-16, big endian
    BOM_UTF16_BE = '\xfe\xff'
    if sys.byteorder == 'little':
        # UTF-16, native endianness
        BOM_UTF16 = BOM_UTF16_LE
    else:
        # UTF-16, native endianness
        BOM_UTF16 = BOM_UTF16_BE

# A dictionary mapping BOM to
# the encoding to decode with, and what to set the
# encoding attribute to.
BOMS = {
    BOM_UTF8: ('utf_8', None),
    BOM_UTF16_BE: ('utf16_be', 'utf_16'),
    BOM_UTF16_LE: ('utf16_le', 'utf_16'),
    BOM_UTF16: ('utf_16', 'utf_16'),
    }
# All legal variants of the BOM codecs.
# TODO: the list of aliases is not meant to be exhaustive, is there a
#   better way ?
BOM_LIST = {
    'utf_16': 'utf_16',
    'u16': 'utf_16',
    'utf16': 'utf_16',
    'utf-16': 'utf_16',
    'utf16_be': 'utf16_be',
    'utf_16_be': 'utf16_be',
    'utf-16be': 'utf16_be',
    'utf16_le': 'utf16_le',
    'utf_16_le': 'utf16_le',
    'utf-16le': 'utf16_le',
    'utf_8': 'utf_8',
    'u8': 'utf_8',
    'utf': 'utf_8',
    'utf8': 'utf_8',
    'utf-8': 'utf_8',
    }

# Map of encodings to the BOM to write.
BOM_SET = {
    'utf_8': BOM_UTF8,
    'utf_16': BOM_UTF16,
    'utf16_be': BOM_UTF16_BE,
    'utf16_le': BOM_UTF16_LE,
    None: BOM_UTF8
    }

try:
    from validate import VdtMissingValue
except ImportError:
    VdtMissingValue = None

try:
    enumerate
except NameError:
    def enumerate(obj):
        """enumerate for Python 2.2."""
        i = -1
        for item in obj:
            i += 1
            yield i, item

try:
    True, False
except NameError:
    True, False = 1, 0


__version__ = '4.4.0'

__revision__ = '$Id: configobj.py,v 3.5 2007/07/02 18:20:24 benjamin%smedbergs.us Exp $'

__docformat__ = "restructuredtext en"

__all__ = (
    '__version__',
    'DEFAULT_INDENT_TYPE',
    'DEFAULT_INTERPOLATION',
    'ConfigObjError',
    'NestingError',
    'ParseError',
    'DuplicateError',
    'ConfigspecError',
    'ConfigObj',
    'SimpleVal',
    'InterpolationError',
    'InterpolationLoopError',
    'MissingInterpolationOption',
    'RepeatSectionError',
    'UnreprError',
    'UnknownType',
    '__docformat__',
    'flatten_errors',
)

DEFAULT_INTERPOLATION = 'configparser'
DEFAULT_INDENT_TYPE = '    '
MAX_INTERPOL_DEPTH = 10

OPTION_DEFAULTS = {
    'interpolation': True,
    'raise_errors': False,
    'list_values': True,
    'create_empty': False,
    'file_error': False,
    'configspec': None,
    'stringify': True,
    # option may be set to one of ('', ' ', '\t')
    'indent_type': None,
    'encoding': None,
    'default_encoding': None,
    'unrepr': False,
    'write_empty_values': False,
}


def getObj(s):
    s = "a=" + s
    if compiler is None:
        raise ImportError('compiler module not available')
    p = compiler.parse(s)
    return p.getChildren()[1].getChildren()[0].getChildren()[1]

class UnknownType(Exception):
    pass

class Builder:
    
    def build(self, o):
        m = getattr(self, 'build_' + o.__class__.__name__, None)
        if m is None:
            raise UnknownType(o.__class__.__name__)
        return m(o)
    
    def build_List(self, o):
        return map(self.build, o.getChildren())
    
    def build_Const(self, o):
        return o.value
    
    def build_Dict(self, o):
        d = {}
        i = iter(map(self.build, o.getChildren()))
        for el in i:
            d[el] = i.next()
        return d
    
    def build_Tuple(self, o):
        return tuple(self.build_List(o))
    
    def build_Name(self, o):
        if o.name == 'None':
            return None
        if o.name == 'True':
            return True
        if o.name == 'False':
            return False
        
        # An undefinted Name
        raise UnknownType('Undefined Name')
    
    def build_Add(self, o):
        real, imag = map(self.build_Const, o.getChildren())
        try:
            real = float(real)
        except TypeError:
            raise UnknownType('Add')
        if not isinstance(imag, complex) or imag.real != 0.0:
            raise UnknownType('Add')
        return real+imag
    
    def build_Getattr(self, o):
        parent = self.build(o.expr)
        return getattr(parent, o.attrname)
    
    def build_UnarySub(self, o):
        return -self.build_Const(o.getChildren()[0])
    
    def build_UnaryAdd(self, o):
        return self.build_Const(o.getChildren()[0])

def unrepr(s):
    if not s:
        return s
    return Builder().build(getObj(s))

def _splitlines(instring):
    """Split a string on lines, without losing line endings or truncating."""
    

class ConfigObjError(SyntaxError):
    """
    This is the base class for all errors that ConfigObj raises.
    It is a subclass of SyntaxError.
    """
    def __init__(self, message='', line_number=None, line=''):
        self.line = line
        self.line_number = line_number
        self.message = message
        SyntaxError.__init__(self, message)

class NestingError(ConfigObjError):
    """
    This error indicates a level of nesting that doesn't match.
    """

class ParseError(ConfigObjError):
    """
    This error indicates that a line is badly written.
    It is neither a valid ``key = value`` line,
    nor a valid section marker line.
    """

class DuplicateError(ConfigObjError):
    """
    The keyword or section specified already exists.
    """

class ConfigspecError(ConfigObjError):
    """
    An error occured whilst parsing a configspec.
    """

class InterpolationError(ConfigObjError):
    """Base class for the two interpolation errors."""

class InterpolationLoopError(InterpolationError):
    """Maximum interpolation depth exceeded in string interpolation."""

    def __init__(self, option):
        InterpolationError.__init__(
            self,
            'interpolation loop detected in value "%s".' % option)

class RepeatSectionError(ConfigObjError):
    """
    This error indicates additional sections in a section with a
    ``__many__`` (repeated) section.
    """

class MissingInterpolationOption(InterpolationError):
    """A value specified for interpolation was missing."""

    def __init__(self, option):
        InterpolationError.__init__(
            self,
            'missing option "%s" in interpolation.' % option)

class UnreprError(ConfigObjError):
    """An error parsing in unrepr mode."""


class InterpolationEngine(object):
    """
    A helper class to help perform string interpolation.

    This class is an abstract base class; its descendants perform
    the actual work.
    """

    # compiled regexp to use in self.interpolate()
    _KEYCRE = re.compile(r"%\(([^)]*)\)s")

    def __init__(self, section):
        # the Section instance that "owns" this engine
        self.section = section

    def interpolate(self, key, value):
        def recursive_interpolate(key, value, section, backtrail):
            """The function that does the actual work.

            ``value``: the string we're trying to interpolate.
            ``section``: the section in which that string was found
            ``backtrail``: a dict to keep track of where we've been,
            to detect and prevent infinite recursion loops

            This is similar to a depth-first-search algorithm.
            """
            # Have we been here already?
            if backtrail.has_key((key, section.name)):
                # Yes - infinite loop detected
                raise InterpolationLoopError(key)
            # Place a marker on our backtrail so we won't come back here again
            backtrail[(key, section.name)] = 1

            # Now start the actual work
            match = self._KEYCRE.search(value)
            while match:
                # The actual parsing of the match is implementation-dependent,
                # so delegate to our helper function
                k, v, s = self._parse_match(match)
                if k is None:
                    # That's the signal that no further interpolation is needed
                    replacement = v
                else:
                    # Further interpolation may be needed to obtain final value
                    replacement = recursive_interpolate(k, v, s, backtrail)
                # Replace the matched string with its final value
                start, end = match.span()
                value = ''.join((value[:start], replacement, value[end:]))
                new_search_start = start + len(replacement)
                # Pick up the next interpolation key, if any, for next time
                # through the while loop
                match = self._KEYCRE.search(value, new_search_start)

            # Now safe to come back here again; remove marker from backtrail
            del backtrail[(key, section.name)]

            return value

        # Back in interpolate(), all we have to do is kick off the recursive
        # function with appropriate starting values
        value = recursive_interpolate(key, value, self.section, {})
        return value

    def _fetch(self, key):
        """Helper function to fetch values from owning section.

        Returns a 2-tuple: the value, and the section where it was found.
        """
        # switch off interpolation before we try and fetch anything !
        save_interp = self.section.main.interpolation
        self.section.main.interpolation = False

        # Start at section that "owns" this InterpolationEngine
        current_section = self.section
        while True:
            # try the current section first
            val = current_section.get(key)
            if val is not None:
                break
            # try "DEFAULT" next
            val = current_section.get('DEFAULT', {}).get(key)
            if val is not None:
                break
            # move up to parent and try again
            # top-level's parent is itself
            if current_section.parent is current_section:
                # reached top level, time to give up
                break
            current_section = current_section.parent

        # restore interpolation to previous value before returning
        self.section.main.interpolation = save_interp
        if val is None:
            raise MissingInterpolationOption(key)
        return val, current_section

    def _parse_match(self, match):
        """Implementation-dependent helper function.

        Will be passed a match object corresponding to the interpolation
        key we just found (e.g., "%(foo)s" or "$foo"). Should look up that
        key in the appropriate config file section (using the ``_fetch()``
        helper function) and return a 3-tuple: (key, value, section)

        ``key`` is the name of the key we're looking for
        ``value`` is the value found for that key
        ``section`` is a reference to the section where it was found

        ``key`` and ``section`` should be None if no further
        interpolation should be performed on the resulting value
        (e.g., if we interpolated "$$" and returned "$").
        """
        raise NotImplementedError
    

class ConfigParserInterpolation(InterpolationEngine):
    """Behaves like ConfigParser."""
    _KEYCRE = re.compile(r"%\(([^)]*)\)s")

    def _parse_match(self, match):
        key = match.group(1)
        value, section = self._fetch(key)
        return key, value, section


class TemplateInterpolation(InterpolationEngine):
    """Behaves like string.Template."""
    _delimiter = '$'
    _KEYCRE = re.compile(r"""
        \$(?:
          (?P<escaped>\$)              |   # Two $ signs
          (?P<named>[_a-z][_a-z0-9]*)  |   # $name format
          {(?P<braced>[^}]*)}              # ${name} format
        )
        """, re.IGNORECASE | re.VERBOSE)

    def _parse_match(self, match):
        # Valid name (in or out of braces): fetch value from section
        key = match.group('named') or match.group('braced')
        if key is not None:
            value, section = self._fetch(key)
            return key, value, section
        # Escaped delimiter (e.g., $$): return single delimiter
        if match.group('escaped') is not None:
            # Return None for key and section to indicate it's time to stop
            return None, self._delimiter, None
        # Anything else: ignore completely, just return it unchanged
        return None, match.group(), None

interpolation_engines = {
    'configparser': ConfigParserInterpolation,
    'template': TemplateInterpolation,
}

class Section(dict):
    """
    A dictionary-like object that represents a section in a config file.
    
    It does string interpolation if the 'interpolation' attribute
    of the 'main' object is set to True.
    
    Interpolation is tried first from this object, then from the 'DEFAULT'
    section of this object, next from the parent and its 'DEFAULT' section,
    and so on until the main object is reached.
    
    A Section will behave like an ordered dictionary - following the
    order of the ``scalars`` and ``sections`` attributes.
    You can use this to change the order of members.
    
    Iteration follows the order: scalars, then sections.
    """

    def __init__(self, parent, depth, main, indict=None, name=None):
        """
        * parent is the section above
        * depth is the depth level of this section
        * main is the main ConfigObj
        * indict is a dictionary to initialise the section with
        """
        if indict is None:
            indict = {}
        dict.__init__(self)
        # used for nesting level *and* interpolation
        self.parent = parent
        # used for the interpolation attribute
        self.main = main
        # level of nesting depth of this Section
        self.depth = depth
        # the sequence of scalar values in this Section
        self.scalars = []
        # the sequence of sections in this Section
        self.sections = []
        # purely for information
        self.name = name
        # for comments :-)
        self.comments = {}
        self.inline_comments = {}
        # for the configspec
        self.configspec = {}
        self._order = []
        self._configspec_comments = {}
        self._configspec_inline_comments = {}
        self._cs_section_comments = {}
        self._cs_section_inline_comments = {}
        # for defaults
        self.defaults = []
        #
        # we do this explicitly so that __setitem__ is used properly
        # (rather than just passing to ``dict.__init__``)
        for entry in indict:
            self[entry] = indict[entry]

    def _interpolate(self, key, value):
        try:
            # do we already have an interpolation engine?
            engine = self._interpolation_engine
        except AttributeError:
            # not yet: first time running _interpolate(), so pick the engine
            name = self.main.interpolation
            if name == True:  # note that "if name:" would be incorrect here
                # backwards-compatibility: interpolation=True means use default
                name = DEFAULT_INTERPOLATION
            name = name.lower()  # so that "Template", "template", etc. all work
            class_ = interpolation_engines.get(name, None)
            if class_ is None:
                # invalid value for self.main.interpolation
                self.main.interpolation = False
                return value
            else:
                # save reference to engine so we don't have to do this again
                engine = self._interpolation_engine = class_(self)
        # let the engine do the actual work
        return engine.interpolate(key, value)

    def __getitem__(self, key):
        """Fetch the item and do string interpolation."""
        val = dict.__getitem__(self, key)
        if self.main.interpolation and isinstance(val, StringTypes):
            return self._interpolate(key, val)
        return val

    def __setitem__(self, key, value, unrepr=False):
        """
        Correctly set a value.
        
        Making dictionary values Section instances.
        (We have to special case 'Section' instances - which are also dicts)
        
        Keys must be strings.
        Values need only be strings (or lists of strings) if
        ``main.stringify`` is set.
        
        `unrepr`` must be set when setting a value to a dictionary, without
        creating a new sub-section.
        """
        if not isinstance(key, StringTypes):
            raise ValueError, 'The key "%s" is not a string.' % key
        # add the comment
        if not self.comments.has_key(key):
            self.comments[key] = []
            self.inline_comments[key] = ''
        # remove the entry from defaults
        if key in self.defaults:
            self.defaults.remove(key)
        #
        if isinstance(value, Section):
            if not self.has_key(key):
                self.sections.append(key)
            dict.__setitem__(self, key, value)
        elif isinstance(value, dict) and not unrepr:
            # First create the new depth level,
            # then create the section
            if not self.has_key(key):
                self.sections.append(key)
            new_depth = self.depth + 1
            dict.__setitem__(
                self,
                key,
                Section(
                    self,
                    new_depth,
                    self.main,
                    indict=value,
                    name=key))
        else:
            if not self.has_key(key):
                self.scalars.append(key)
            if not self.main.stringify:
                if isinstance(value, StringTypes):
                    pass
                elif isinstance(value, (list, tuple)):
                    for entry in value:
                        if not isinstance(entry, StringTypes):
                            raise TypeError, (
                                'Value is not a string "%s".' % entry)
                else:
                    raise TypeError, 'Value is not a string "%s".' % value
            dict.__setitem__(self, key, value)

    def __delitem__(self, key):
        """Remove items from the sequence when deleting."""
        dict. __delitem__(self, key)
        if key in self.scalars:
            self.scalars.remove(key)
        else:
            self.sections.remove(key)
        del self.comments[key]
        del self.inline_comments[key]

    def get(self, key, default=None):
        """A version of ``get`` that doesn't bypass string interpolation."""
        try:
            return self[key]
        except KeyError:
            return default

    def update(self, indict):
        """
        A version of update that uses our ``__setitem__``.
        """
        for entry in indict:
            self[entry] = indict[entry]

    def pop(self, key, *args):
        """ """
        val = dict.pop(self, key, *args)
        if key in self.scalars:
            del self.comments[key]
            del self.inline_comments[key]
            self.scalars.remove(key)
        elif key in self.sections:
            del self.comments[key]
            del self.inline_comments[key]
            self.sections.remove(key)
        if self.main.interpolation and isinstance(val, StringTypes):
            return self._interpolate(key, val)
        return val

    def popitem(self):
        """Pops the first (key,val)"""
        sequence = (self.scalars + self.sections)
        if not sequence:
            raise KeyError, ": 'popitem(): dictionary is empty'"
        key = sequence[0]
        val =  self[key]
        del self[key]
        return key, val

    def clear(self):
        """
        A version of clear that also affects scalars/sections
        Also clears comments and configspec.
        
        Leaves other attributes alone :
            depth/main/parent are not affected
        """
        dict.clear(self)
        self.scalars = []
        self.sections = []
        self.comments = {}
        self.inline_comments = {}
        self.configspec = {}

    def setdefault(self, key, default=None):
        """A version of setdefault that sets sequence if appropriate."""
        try:
            return self[key]
        except KeyError:
            self[key] = default
            return self[key]

    def items(self):
        """ """
        return zip((self.scalars + self.sections), self.values())

    def keys(self):
        """ """
        return (self.scalars + self.sections)

    def values(self):
        """ """
        return [self[key] for key in (self.scalars + self.sections)]

    def iteritems(self):
        """ """
        return iter(self.items())

    def iterkeys(self):
        """ """
        return iter((self.scalars + self.sections))

    __iter__ = iterkeys

    def itervalues(self):
        """ """
        return iter(self.values())

    def __repr__(self):
        return '{%s}' % ', '.join([('%s: %s' % (repr(key), repr(self[key])))
            for key in (self.scalars + self.sections)])

    __str__ = __repr__

    # Extra methods - not in a normal dictionary

    def dict(self):
        """
        Return a deepcopy of self as a dictionary.
        
        All members that are ``Section`` instances are recursively turned to
        ordinary dictionaries - by calling their ``dict`` method.
        
        >>> n = a.dict()
        >>> n == a
        1
        >>> n is a
        0
        """
        newdict = {}
        for entry in self:
            this_entry = self[entry]
            if isinstance(this_entry, Section):
                this_entry = this_entry.dict()
            elif isinstance(this_entry, list):
                # create a copy rather than a reference
                this_entry = list(this_entry)
            elif isinstance(this_entry, tuple):
                # create a copy rather than a reference
                this_entry = tuple(this_entry)
            newdict[entry] = this_entry
        return newdict

    def merge(self, indict):
        """
        A recursive update - useful for merging config files.
        
        >>> a = '''[section1]
        ...     option1 = True
        ...     [[subsection]]
        ...     more_options = False
        ...     # end of file'''.splitlines()
        >>> b = '''# File is user.ini
        ...     [section1]
        ...     option1 = False
        ...     # end of file'''.splitlines()
        >>> c1 = ConfigObj(b)
        >>> c2 = ConfigObj(a)
        >>> c2.merge(c1)
        >>> c2
        {'section1': {'option1': 'False', 'subsection': {'more_options': 'False'}}}
        """
        for key, val in indict.items():
            if (key in self and isinstance(self[key], dict) and
                                isinstance(val, dict)):
                self[key].merge(val)
            else:   
                self[key] = val

    def rename(self, oldkey, newkey):
        """
        Change a keyname to another, without changing position in sequence.
        
        Implemented so that transformations can be made on keys,
        as well as on values. (used by encode and decode)
        
        Also renames comments.
        """
        if oldkey in self.scalars:
            the_list = self.scalars
        elif oldkey in self.sections:
            the_list = self.sections
        else:
            raise KeyError, 'Key "%s" not found.' % oldkey
        pos = the_list.index(oldkey)
        #
        val = self[oldkey]
        dict.__delitem__(self, oldkey)
        dict.__setitem__(self, newkey, val)
        the_list.remove(oldkey)
        the_list.insert(pos, newkey)
        comm = self.comments[oldkey]
        inline_comment = self.inline_comments[oldkey]
        del self.comments[oldkey]
        del self.inline_comments[oldkey]
        self.comments[newkey] = comm
        self.inline_comments[newkey] = inline_comment

    def walk(self, function, raise_errors=True,
            call_on_sections=False, **keywargs):
        """
        Walk every member and call a function on the keyword and value.
        
        Return a dictionary of the return values
        
        If the function raises an exception, raise the errror
        unless ``raise_errors=False``, in which case set the return value to
        ``False``.
        
        Any unrecognised keyword arguments you pass to walk, will be pased on
        to the function you pass in.
        
        Note: if ``call_on_sections`` is ``True`` then - on encountering a
        subsection, *first* the function is called for the *whole* subsection,
        and then recurses into it's members. This means your function must be
        able to handle strings, dictionaries and lists. This allows you
        to change the key of subsections as well as for ordinary members. The
        return value when called on the whole subsection has to be discarded.
        
        See  the encode and decode methods for examples, including functions.
        
        .. caution::
        
            You can use ``walk`` to transform the names of members of a section
            but you mustn't add or delete members.
        
        >>> config = '''[XXXXsection]
        ... XXXXkey = XXXXvalue'''.splitlines()
        >>> cfg = ConfigObj(config)
        >>> cfg
        {'XXXXsection': {'XXXXkey': 'XXXXvalue'}}
        >>> def transform(section, key):
        ...     val = section[key]
        ...     newkey = key.replace('XXXX', 'CLIENT1')
        ...     section.rename(key, newkey)
        ...     if isinstance(val, (tuple, list, dict)):
        ...         pass
        ...     else:
        ...         val = val.replace('XXXX', 'CLIENT1')
        ...         section[newkey] = val
        >>> cfg.walk(transform, call_on_sections=True)
        {'CLIENT1section': {'CLIENT1key': None}}
        >>> cfg
        {'CLIENT1section': {'CLIENT1key': 'CLIENT1value'}}
        """
        out = {}
        # scalars first
        for i in range(len(self.scalars)):
            entry = self.scalars[i]
            try:
                val = function(self, entry, **keywargs)
                # bound again in case name has changed
                entry = self.scalars[i]
                out[entry] = val
            except Exception:
                if raise_errors:
                    raise
                else:
                    entry = self.scalars[i]
                    out[entry] = False
        # then sections
        for i in range(len(self.sections)):
            entry = self.sections[i]
            if call_on_sections:
                try:
                    function(self, entry, **keywargs)
                except Exception:
                    if raise_errors:
                        raise
                    else:
                        entry = self.sections[i]
                        out[entry] = False
                # bound again in case name has changed
                entry = self.sections[i]
            # previous result is discarded
            out[entry] = self[entry].walk(
                function,
                raise_errors=raise_errors,
                call_on_sections=call_on_sections,
                **keywargs)
        return out

    def decode(self, encoding):
        """
        Decode all strings and values to unicode, using the specified encoding.
        
        Works with subsections and list values.
        
        Uses the ``walk`` method.
        
        Testing ``encode`` and ``decode``.
        >>> m = ConfigObj(a)
        >>> m.decode('ascii')
        >>> def testuni(val):
        ...     for entry in val:
        ...         if not isinstance(entry, unicode):
        ...             print >> sys.stderr, type(entry)
        ...             raise AssertionError, 'decode failed.'
        ...         if isinstance(val[entry], dict):
        ...             testuni(val[entry])
        ...         elif not isinstance(val[entry], unicode):
        ...             raise AssertionError, 'decode failed.'
        >>> testuni(m)
        >>> m.encode('ascii')
        >>> a == m
        1
        """
        warn('use of ``decode`` is deprecated.', DeprecationWarning)
        def decode(section, key, encoding=encoding, warn=True):
            """ """
            val = section[key]
            if isinstance(val, (list, tuple)):
                newval = []
                for entry in val:
                    newval.append(entry.decode(encoding))
            elif isinstance(val, dict):
                newval = val
            else:
                newval = val.decode(encoding)
            newkey = key.decode(encoding)
            section.rename(key, newkey)
            section[newkey] = newval
        # using ``call_on_sections`` allows us to modify section names
        self.walk(decode, call_on_sections=True)

    def encode(self, encoding):
        """
        Encode all strings and values from unicode,
        using the specified encoding.
        
        Works with subsections and list values.
        Uses the ``walk`` method.
        """
        warn('use of ``encode`` is deprecated.', DeprecationWarning)
        def encode(section, key, encoding=encoding):
            """ """
            val = section[key]
            if isinstance(val, (list, tuple)):
                newval = []
                for entry in val:
                    newval.append(entry.encode(encoding))
            elif isinstance(val, dict):
                newval = val
            else:
                newval = val.encode(encoding)
            newkey = key.encode(encoding)
            section.rename(key, newkey)
            section[newkey] = newval
        self.walk(encode, call_on_sections=True)

    def istrue(self, key):
        """A deprecated version of ``as_bool``."""
        warn('use of ``istrue`` is deprecated. Use ``as_bool`` method '
                'instead.', DeprecationWarning)
        return self.as_bool(key)

    def as_bool(self, key):
        """
        Accepts a key as input. The corresponding value must be a string or
        the objects (``True`` or 1) or (``False`` or 0). We allow 0 and 1 to
        retain compatibility with Python 2.2.
        
        If the string is one of  ``True``, ``On``, ``Yes``, or ``1`` it returns 
        ``True``.
        
        If the string is one of  ``False``, ``Off``, ``No``, or ``0`` it returns 
        ``False``.
        
        ``as_bool`` is not case sensitive.
        
        Any other input will raise a ``ValueError``.
        
        >>> a = ConfigObj()
        >>> a['a'] = 'fish'
        >>> a.as_bool('a')
        Traceback (most recent call last):
        ValueError: Value "fish" is neither True nor False
        >>> a['b'] = 'True'
        >>> a.as_bool('b')
        1
        >>> a['b'] = 'off'
        >>> a.as_bool('b')
        0
        """
        val = self[key]
        if val == True:
            return True
        elif val == False:
            return False
        else:
            try:
                if not isinstance(val, StringTypes):
                    raise KeyError
                else:
                    return self.main._bools[val.lower()]
            except KeyError:
                raise ValueError('Value "%s" is neither True nor False' % val)

    def as_int(self, key):
        """
        A convenience method which coerces the specified value to an integer.
        
        If the value is an invalid literal for ``int``, a ``ValueError`` will
        be raised.
        
        >>> a = ConfigObj()
        >>> a['a'] = 'fish'
        >>> a.as_int('a')
        Traceback (most recent call last):
        ValueError: invalid literal for int(): fish
        >>> a['b'] = '1'
        >>> a.as_int('b')
        1
        >>> a['b'] = '3.2'
        >>> a.as_int('b')
        Traceback (most recent call last):
        ValueError: invalid literal for int(): 3.2
        """
        return int(self[key])

    def as_float(self, key):
        """
        A convenience method which coerces the specified value to a float.
        
        If the value is an invalid literal for ``float``, a ``ValueError`` will
        be raised.
        
        >>> a = ConfigObj()
        >>> a['a'] = 'fish'
        >>> a.as_float('a')
        Traceback (most recent call last):
        ValueError: invalid literal for float(): fish
        >>> a['b'] = '1'
        >>> a.as_float('b')
        1.0
        >>> a['b'] = '3.2'
        >>> a.as_float('b')
        3.2000000000000002
        """
        return float(self[key])
    

class ConfigObj(Section):
    """An object to read, create, and write config files."""

    _keyword = re.compile(r'''^ # line start
        (\s*)                   # indentation
        (                       # keyword
            (?:".*?")|          # double quotes
            (?:'.*?')|          # single quotes
            (?:[^'"=].*?)       # no quotes
        )
        \s*=\s*                 # divider
        (.*)                    # value (including list values and comments)
        $   # line end
        ''',
        re.VERBOSE)

    _sectionmarker = re.compile(r'''^
        (\s*)                     # 1: indentation
        ((?:\[\s*)+)              # 2: section marker open
        (                         # 3: section name open
            (?:"\s*\S.*?\s*")|    # at least one non-space with double quotes
            (?:'\s*\S.*?\s*')|    # at least one non-space with single quotes
            (?:[^'"\s].*?)        # at least one non-space unquoted
        )                         # section name close
        ((?:\s*\])+)              # 4: section marker close
        \s*(\#.*)?                # 5: optional comment
        $''',
        re.VERBOSE)

    # this regexp pulls list values out as a single string
    # or single values and comments
    # FIXME: this regex adds a '' to the end of comma terminated lists
    #   workaround in ``_handle_value``
    _valueexp = re.compile(r'''^
        (?:
            (?:
                (
                    (?:
                        (?:
                            (?:".*?")|              # double quotes
                            (?:'.*?')|              # single quotes
                            (?:[^'",\#][^,\#]*?)    # unquoted
                        )
                        \s*,\s*                     # comma
                    )*      # match all list items ending in a comma (if any)
                )
                (
                    (?:".*?")|                      # double quotes
                    (?:'.*?')|                      # single quotes
                    (?:[^'",\#\s][^,]*?)|           # unquoted
                    (?:(?<!,))                      # Empty value
                )?          # last item in a list - or string value
            )|
            (,)             # alternatively a single comma - empty list
        )
        \s*(\#.*)?          # optional comment
        $''',
        re.VERBOSE)

    # use findall to get the members of a list value
    _listvalueexp = re.compile(r'''
        (
            (?:".*?")|          # double quotes
            (?:'.*?')|          # single quotes
            (?:[^'",\#].*?)       # unquoted
        )
        \s*,\s*                 # comma
        ''',
        re.VERBOSE)

    # this regexp is used for the value
    # when lists are switched off
    _nolistvalue = re.compile(r'''^
        (
            (?:".*?")|          # double quotes
            (?:'.*?')|          # single quotes
            (?:[^'"\#].*?)|     # unquoted
            (?:)                # Empty value
        )
        \s*(\#.*)?              # optional comment
        $''',
        re.VERBOSE)

    # regexes for finding triple quoted values on one line
    _single_line_single = re.compile(r"^'''(.*?)'''\s*(#.*)?$")
    _single_line_double = re.compile(r'^"""(.*?)"""\s*(#.*)?$')
    _multi_line_single = re.compile(r"^(.*?)'''\s*(#.*)?$")
    _multi_line_double = re.compile(r'^(.*?)"""\s*(#.*)?$')

    _triple_quote = {
        "'''": (_single_line_single, _multi_line_single),
        '"""': (_single_line_double, _multi_line_double),
    }

    # Used by the ``istrue`` Section method
    _bools = {
        'yes': True, 'no': False,
        'on': True, 'off': False,
        '1': True, '0': False,
        'true': True, 'false': False,
        }

    def __init__(self, infile=None, options=None, **kwargs):
        """
        Parse or create a config file object.
        
        ``ConfigObj(infile=None, options=None, **kwargs)``
        """
        if infile is None:
            infile = []
        if options is None:
            options = {}
        else:
            options = dict(options)
        # keyword arguments take precedence over an options dictionary
        options.update(kwargs)
        # init the superclass
        Section.__init__(self, self, 0, self)
        #
        defaults = OPTION_DEFAULTS.copy()
        for entry in options.keys():
            if entry not in defaults.keys():
                raise TypeError, 'Unrecognised option "%s".' % entry
        # TODO: check the values too.
        #
        # Add any explicit options to the defaults
        defaults.update(options)
        #
        # initialise a few variables
        self.filename = None
        self._errors = []
        self.raise_errors = defaults['raise_errors']
        self.interpolation = defaults['interpolation']
        self.list_values = defaults['list_values']
        self.create_empty = defaults['create_empty']
        self.file_error = defaults['file_error']
        self.stringify = defaults['stringify']
        self.indent_type = defaults['indent_type']
        self.encoding = defaults['encoding']
        self.default_encoding = defaults['default_encoding']
        self.BOM = False
        self.newlines = None
        self.write_empty_values = defaults['write_empty_values']
        self.unrepr = defaults['unrepr']
        #
        self.initial_comment = []
        self.final_comment = []
        #
        self._terminated = False
        #
        if isinstance(infile, StringTypes):
            self.filename = infile
            if os.path.isfile(infile):
                infile = open(infile).read() or []
            elif self.file_error:
                # raise an error if the file doesn't exist
                raise IOError, 'Config file not found: "%s".' % self.filename
            else:
                # file doesn't already exist
                if self.create_empty:
                    # this is a good test that the filename specified
                    # isn't impossible - like on a non existent device
                    h = open(infile, 'w')
                    h.write('')
                    h.close()
                infile = []
        elif isinstance(infile, (list, tuple)):
            infile = list(infile)
        elif isinstance(infile, dict):
            # initialise self
            # the Section class handles creating subsections
            if isinstance(infile, ConfigObj):
                # get a copy of our ConfigObj
                infile = infile.dict()
            for entry in infile:
                self[entry] = infile[entry]
            del self._errors
            if defaults['configspec'] is not None:
                self._handle_configspec(defaults['configspec'])
            else:
                self.configspec = None
            return
        elif hasattr(infile, 'read'):
            # This supports file like objects
            infile = infile.read() or []
            # needs splitting into lines - but needs doing *after* decoding
            # in case it's not an 8 bit encoding
        else:
            raise TypeError, ('infile must be a filename,'
                ' file like object, or list of lines.')
        #
        if infile:
            # don't do it for the empty ConfigObj
            infile = self._handle_bom(infile)
            # infile is now *always* a list
            #
            # Set the newlines attribute (first line ending it finds)
            # and strip trailing '\n' or '\r' from lines
            for line in infile:
                if (not line) or (line[-1] not in ('\r', '\n', '\r\n')):
                    continue
                for end in ('\r\n', '\n', '\r'):
                    if line.endswith(end):
                        self.newlines = end
                        break
                break
            if infile[-1] and infile[-1] in ('\r', '\n', '\r\n'):
                self._terminated = True
            infile = [line.rstrip('\r\n') for line in infile]
        #
        self._parse(infile)
        # if we had any errors, now is the time to raise them
        if self._errors:
            info = "at line %s." % self._errors[0].line_number
            if len(self._errors) > 1:
                msg = ("Parsing failed with several errors.\nFirst error %s" %
                    info)
                error = ConfigObjError(msg)
            else:
                error = self._errors[0]
            # set the errors attribute; it's a list of tuples:
            # (error_type, message, line_number)
            error.errors = self._errors
            # set the config attribute
            error.config = self
            raise error
        # delete private attributes
        del self._errors
        #
        if defaults['configspec'] is None:
            self.configspec = None
        else:
            self._handle_configspec(defaults['configspec'])
    
    def __repr__(self):
        return 'ConfigObj({%s})' % ', '.join(
            [('%s: %s' % (repr(key), repr(self[key]))) for key in
            (self.scalars + self.sections)])
    
    def _handle_bom(self, infile):
        """
        Handle any BOM, and decode if necessary.
        
        If an encoding is specified, that *must* be used - but the BOM should
        still be removed (and the BOM attribute set).
        
        (If the encoding is wrongly specified, then a BOM for an alternative
        encoding won't be discovered or removed.)
        
        If an encoding is not specified, UTF8 or UTF16 BOM will be detected and
        removed. The BOM attribute will be set. UTF16 will be decoded to
        unicode.
        
        NOTE: This method must not be called with an empty ``infile``.
        
        Specifying the *wrong* encoding is likely to cause a
        ``UnicodeDecodeError``.
        
        ``infile`` must always be returned as a list of lines, but may be
        passed in as a single string.
        """
        if ((self.encoding is not None) and
            (self.encoding.lower() not in BOM_LIST)):
            # No need to check for a BOM
            # the encoding specified doesn't have one
            # just decode
            return self._decode(infile, self.encoding)
        #
        if isinstance(infile, (list, tuple)):
            line = infile[0]
        else:
            line = infile
        if self.encoding is not None:
            # encoding explicitly supplied
            # And it could have an associated BOM
            # TODO: if encoding is just UTF16 - we ought to check for both
            # TODO: big endian and little endian versions.
            enc = BOM_LIST[self.encoding.lower()]
            if enc == 'utf_16':
                # For UTF16 we try big endian and little endian
                for BOM, (encoding, final_encoding) in BOMS.items():
                    if not final_encoding:
                        # skip UTF8
                        continue
                    if infile.startswith(BOM):
                        ### BOM discovered
                        ##self.BOM = True
                        # Don't need to remove BOM
                        return self._decode(infile, encoding)
                #
                # If we get this far, will *probably* raise a DecodeError
                # As it doesn't appear to start with a BOM
                return self._decode(infile, self.encoding)
            #
            # Must be UTF8
            BOM = BOM_SET[enc]
            if not line.startswith(BOM):
                return self._decode(infile, self.encoding)
            #
            newline = line[len(BOM):]
            #
            # BOM removed
            if isinstance(infile, (list, tuple)):
                infile[0] = newline
            else:
                infile = newline
            self.BOM = True
            return self._decode(infile, self.encoding)
        #
        # No encoding specified - so we need to check for UTF8/UTF16
        for BOM, (encoding, final_encoding) in BOMS.items():
            if not line.startswith(BOM):
                continue
            else:
                # BOM discovered
                self.encoding = final_encoding
                if not final_encoding:
                    self.BOM = True
                    # UTF8
                    # remove BOM
                    newline = line[len(BOM):]
                    if isinstance(infile, (list, tuple)):
                        infile[0] = newline
                    else:
                        infile = newline
                    # UTF8 - don't decode
                    if isinstance(infile, StringTypes):
                        return infile.splitlines(True)
                    else:
                        return infile
                # UTF16 - have to decode
                return self._decode(infile, encoding)
        #
        # No BOM discovered and no encoding specified, just return
        if isinstance(infile, StringTypes):
            # infile read from a file will be a single string
            return infile.splitlines(True)
        else:
            return infile

    def _a_to_u(self, aString):
        """Decode ASCII strings to unicode if a self.encoding is specified."""
        if self.encoding:
            return aString.decode('ascii')
        else:
            return aString

    def _decode(self, infile, encoding):
        """
        Decode infile to unicode. Using the specified encoding.
        
        if is a string, it also needs converting to a list.
        """
        if isinstance(infile, StringTypes):
            # can't be unicode
            # NOTE: Could raise a ``UnicodeDecodeError``
            return infile.decode(encoding).splitlines(True)
        for i, line in enumerate(infile):
            if not isinstance(line, unicode):
                # NOTE: The isinstance test here handles mixed lists of unicode/string
                # NOTE: But the decode will break on any non-string values
                # NOTE: Or could raise a ``UnicodeDecodeError``
                infile[i] = line.decode(encoding)
        return infile

    def _decode_element(self, line):
        """Decode element to unicode if necessary."""
        if not self.encoding:
            return line
        if isinstance(line, str) and self.default_encoding:
            return line.decode(self.default_encoding)
        return line

    def _str(self, value):
        """
        Used by ``stringify`` within validate, to turn non-string values
        into strings.
        """
        if not isinstance(value, StringTypes):
            return str(value)
        else:
            return value

    def _parse(self, infile):
        """Actually parse the config file."""
        temp_list_values = self.list_values
        if self.unrepr:
            self.list_values = False
        comment_list = []
        done_start = False
        this_section = self
        maxline = len(infile) - 1
        cur_index = -1
        reset_comment = False
        while cur_index < maxline:
            if reset_comment:
                comment_list = []
            cur_index += 1
            line = infile[cur_index]
            sline = line.strip()
            # do we have anything on the line ?
            if not sline or sline.startswith('#') or sline.startswith(';'):
                reset_comment = False
                comment_list.append(line)
                continue
            if not done_start:
                # preserve initial comment
                self.initial_comment = comment_list
                comment_list = []
                done_start = True
            reset_comment = True
            # first we check if it's a section marker
            mat = self._sectionmarker.match(line)
            if mat is not None:
                # is a section line
                (indent, sect_open, sect_name, sect_close, comment) = (
                    mat.groups())
                if indent and (self.indent_type is None):
                    self.indent_type = indent
                cur_depth = sect_open.count('[')
                if cur_depth != sect_close.count(']'):
                    self._handle_error(
                        "Cannot compute the section depth at line %s.",
                        NestingError, infile, cur_index)
                    continue
                #
                if cur_depth < this_section.depth:
                    # the new section is dropping back to a previous level
                    try:
                        parent = self._match_depth(
                            this_section,
                            cur_depth).parent
                    except SyntaxError:
                        self._handle_error(
                            "Cannot compute nesting level at line %s.",
                            NestingError, infile, cur_index)
                        continue
                elif cur_depth == this_section.depth:
                    # the new section is a sibling of the current section
                    parent = this_section.parent
                elif cur_depth == this_section.depth + 1:
                    # the new section is a child the current section
                    parent = this_section
                else:
                    self._handle_error(
                        "Section too nested at line %s.",
                        NestingError, infile, cur_index)
                #
                sect_name = self._unquote(sect_name)
                if parent.has_key(sect_name):
                    self._handle_error(
                        'Duplicate section name at line %s.',
                        DuplicateError, infile, cur_index)
                    continue
                # create the new section
                this_section = Section(
                    parent,
                    cur_depth,
                    self,
                    name=sect_name)
                parent[sect_name] = this_section
                parent.inline_comments[sect_name] = comment
                parent.comments[sect_name] = comment_list
                continue
            #
            # it's not a section marker,
            # so it should be a valid ``key = value`` line
            mat = self._keyword.match(line)
            if mat is None:
                # it neither matched as a keyword
                # or a section marker
                self._handle_error(
                    'Invalid line at line "%s".',
                    ParseError, infile, cur_index)
            else:
                # is a keyword value
                # value will include any inline comment
                (indent, key, value) = mat.groups()
                if indent and (self.indent_type is None):
                    self.indent_type = indent
                # check for a multiline value
                if value[:3] in ['"""', "'''"]:
                    try:
                        (value, comment, cur_index) = self._multiline(
                            value, infile, cur_index, maxline)
                    except SyntaxError:
                        self._handle_error(
                            'Parse error in value at line %s.',
                            ParseError, infile, cur_index)
                        continue
                    else:
                        if self.unrepr:
                            comment = ''
                            try:
                                value = unrepr(value)
                            except Exception, e:
                                if type(e) == UnknownType:
                                    msg = 'Unknown name or type in value at line %s.'
                                else:
                                    msg = 'Parse error in value at line %s.'
                                self._handle_error(msg, UnreprError, infile,
                                    cur_index)
                                continue
                else:
                    if self.unrepr:
                        comment = ''
                        try:
                            value = unrepr(value)
                        except Exception, e:
                            if isinstance(e, UnknownType):
                                msg = 'Unknown name or type in value at line %s.'
                            else:
                                msg = 'Parse error in value at line %s.'
                            self._handle_error(msg, UnreprError, infile,
                                cur_index)
                            continue
                    else:
                        # extract comment and lists
                        try:
                            (value, comment) = self._handle_value(value)
                        except SyntaxError:
                            self._handle_error(
                                'Parse error in value at line %s.',
                                ParseError, infile, cur_index)
                            continue
                #
                key = self._unquote(key)
                if this_section.has_key(key):
                    self._handle_error(
                        'Duplicate keyword name at line %s.',
                        DuplicateError, infile, cur_index)
                    continue
                # add the key.
                # we set unrepr because if we have got this far we will never
                # be creating a new section
                this_section.__setitem__(key, value, unrepr=True)
                this_section.inline_comments[key] = comment
                this_section.comments[key] = comment_list
                continue
        #
        if self.indent_type is None:
            # no indentation used, set the type accordingly
            self.indent_type = ''
        #
        if self._terminated:
            comment_list.append('')
        # preserve the final comment
        if not self and not self.initial_comment:
            self.initial_comment = comment_list
        elif not reset_comment:
            self.final_comment = comment_list
        self.list_values = temp_list_values

    def _match_depth(self, sect, depth):
        """
        Given a section and a depth level, walk back through the sections
        parents to see if the depth level matches a previous section.
        
        Return a reference to the right section,
        or raise a SyntaxError.
        """
        while depth < sect.depth:
            if sect is sect.parent:
                # we've reached the top level already
                raise SyntaxError
            sect = sect.parent
        if sect.depth == depth:
            return sect
        # shouldn't get here
        raise SyntaxError

    def _handle_error(self, text, ErrorClass, infile, cur_index):
        """
        Handle an error according to the error settings.
        
        Either raise the error or store it.
        The error will have occured at ``cur_index``
        """
        line = infile[cur_index]
        cur_index += 1
        message = text % cur_index
        error = ErrorClass(message, cur_index, line)
        if self.raise_errors:
            # raise the error - parsing stops here
            raise error
        # store the error
        # reraise when parsing has finished
        self._errors.append(error)

    def _unquote(self, value):
        """Return an unquoted version of a value"""
        if (value[0] == value[-1]) and (value[0] in ('"', "'")):
            value = value[1:-1]
        return value

    def _quote(self, value, multiline=True):
        """
        Return a safely quoted version of a value.
        
        Raise a ConfigObjError if the value cannot be safely quoted.
        If multiline is ``True`` (default) then use triple quotes
        if necessary.
        
        Don't quote values that don't need it.
        Recursively quote members of a list and return a comma joined list.
        Multiline is ``False`` for lists.
        Obey list syntax for empty and single member lists.
        
        If ``list_values=False`` then the value is only quoted if it contains
        a ``\n`` (is multiline).
        
        If ``write_empty_values`` is set, and the value is an empty string, it
        won't be quoted.
        """
        if multiline and self.write_empty_values and value == '':
            # Only if multiline is set, so that it is used for values not
            # keys, and not values that are part of a list
            return ''
        if multiline and isinstance(value, (list, tuple)):
            if not value:
                return ','
            elif len(value) == 1:
                return self._quote(value[0], multiline=False) + ','
            return ', '.join([self._quote(val, multiline=False)
                for val in value])
        if not isinstance(value, StringTypes):
            if self.stringify:
                value = str(value)
            else:
                raise TypeError, 'Value "%s" is not a string.' % value
        squot = "'%s'"
        dquot = '"%s"'
        noquot = "%s"
        wspace_plus = ' \r\t\n\v\t\'"'
        tsquot = '"""%s"""'
        tdquot = "'''%s'''"
        if not value:
            return '""'
        if (not self.list_values and '\n' not in value) or not (multiline and
                ((("'" in value) and ('"' in value)) or ('\n' in value))):
            if not self.list_values:
                # we don't quote if ``list_values=False``
                quot = noquot
            # for normal values either single or double quotes will do
            elif '\n' in value:
                # will only happen if multiline is off - e.g. '\n' in key
                raise ConfigObjError, ('Value "%s" cannot be safely quoted.' %
                    value)
            elif ((value[0] not in wspace_plus) and
                    (value[-1] not in wspace_plus) and
                    (',' not in value)):
                quot = noquot
            else:
                if ("'" in value) and ('"' in value):
                    raise ConfigObjError, (
                        'Value "%s" cannot be safely quoted.' % value)
                elif '"' in value:
                    quot = squot
                else:
                    quot = dquot
        else:
            # if value has '\n' or "'" *and* '"', it will need triple quotes
            if (value.find('"""') != -1) and (value.find("'''") != -1):
                raise ConfigObjError, (
                    'Value "%s" cannot be safely quoted.' % value)
            if value.find('"""') == -1:
                quot = tdquot
            else:
                quot = tsquot
        return quot % value

    def _handle_value(self, value):
        """
        Given a value string, unquote, remove comment,
        handle lists. (including empty and single member lists)
        """
        # do we look for lists in values ?
        if not self.list_values:
            mat = self._nolistvalue.match(value)
            if mat is None:
                raise SyntaxError
            # NOTE: we don't unquote here
            return mat.groups()
        #
        mat = self._valueexp.match(value)
        if mat is None:
            # the value is badly constructed, probably badly quoted,
            # or an invalid list
            raise SyntaxError
        (list_values, single, empty_list, comment) = mat.groups()
        if (list_values == '') and (single is None):
            # change this if you want to accept empty values
            raise SyntaxError
        # NOTE: note there is no error handling from here if the regex
        # is wrong: then incorrect values will slip through
        if empty_list is not None:
            # the single comma - meaning an empty list
            return ([], comment)
        if single is not None:
            # handle empty values
            if list_values and not single:
                # FIXME: the '' is a workaround because our regex now matches
                #   '' at the end of a list if it has a trailing comma
                single = None
            else:
                single = single or '""'
                single = self._unquote(single)
        if list_values == '':
            # not a list value
            return (single, comment)
        the_list = self._listvalueexp.findall(list_values)
        the_list = [self._unquote(val) for val in the_list]
        if single is not None:
            the_list += [single]
        return (the_list, comment)

    def _multiline(self, value, infile, cur_index, maxline):
        """Extract the value, where we are in a multiline situation."""
        quot = value[:3]
        newvalue = value[3:]
        single_line = self._triple_quote[quot][0]
        multi_line = self._triple_quote[quot][1]
        mat = single_line.match(value)
        if mat is not None:
            retval = list(mat.groups())
            retval.append(cur_index)
            return retval
        elif newvalue.find(quot) != -1:
            # somehow the triple quote is missing
            raise SyntaxError
        #
        while cur_index < maxline:
            cur_index += 1
            newvalue += '\n'
            line = infile[cur_index]
            if line.find(quot) == -1:
                newvalue += line
            else:
                # end of multiline, process it
                break
        else:
            # we've got to the end of the config, oops...
            raise SyntaxError
        mat = multi_line.match(line)
        if mat is None:
            # a badly formed line
            raise SyntaxError
        (value, comment) = mat.groups()
        return (newvalue + value, comment, cur_index)

    def _handle_configspec(self, configspec):
        """Parse the configspec."""
        # FIXME: Should we check that the configspec was created with the 
        #   correct settings ? (i.e. ``list_values=False``)
        if not isinstance(configspec, ConfigObj):
            try:
                configspec = ConfigObj(
                    configspec,
                    raise_errors=True,
                    file_error=True,
                    list_values=False)
            except ConfigObjError, e:
                # FIXME: Should these errors have a reference
                # to the already parsed ConfigObj ?
                raise ConfigspecError('Parsing configspec failed: %s' % e)
            except IOError, e:
                raise IOError('Reading configspec failed: %s' % e)
        self._set_configspec_value(configspec, self)

    def _set_configspec_value(self, configspec, section):
        """Used to recursively set configspec values."""
        if '__many__' in configspec.sections:
            section.configspec['__many__'] = configspec['__many__']
            if len(configspec.sections) > 1:
                # FIXME: can we supply any useful information here ?
                raise RepeatSectionError
        if hasattr(configspec, 'initial_comment'):
            section._configspec_initial_comment = configspec.initial_comment
            section._configspec_final_comment = configspec.final_comment
            section._configspec_encoding = configspec.encoding
            section._configspec_BOM = configspec.BOM
            section._configspec_newlines = configspec.newlines
            section._configspec_indent_type = configspec.indent_type
        for entry in configspec.scalars:
            section._configspec_comments[entry] = configspec.comments[entry]
            section._configspec_inline_comments[entry] = (
                configspec.inline_comments[entry])
            section.configspec[entry] = configspec[entry]
            section._order.append(entry)
        for entry in configspec.sections:
            if entry == '__many__':
                continue
            section._cs_section_comments[entry] = configspec.comments[entry]
            section._cs_section_inline_comments[entry] = (
                configspec.inline_comments[entry])
            if not section.has_key(entry):
                section[entry] = {}
            self._set_configspec_value(configspec[entry], section[entry])

    def _handle_repeat(self, section, configspec):
        """Dynamically assign configspec for repeated section."""
        try:
            section_keys = configspec.sections
            scalar_keys = configspec.scalars
        except AttributeError:
            section_keys = [entry for entry in configspec 
                                if isinstance(configspec[entry], dict)]
            scalar_keys = [entry for entry in configspec 
                                if not isinstance(configspec[entry], dict)]
        if '__many__' in section_keys and len(section_keys) > 1:
            # FIXME: can we supply any useful information here ?
            raise RepeatSectionError
        scalars = {}
        sections = {}
        for entry in scalar_keys:
            val = configspec[entry]
            scalars[entry] = val
        for entry in section_keys:
            val = configspec[entry]
            if entry == '__many__':
                scalars[entry] = val
                continue
            sections[entry] = val
        #
        section.configspec = scalars
        for entry in sections:
            if not section.has_key(entry):
                section[entry] = {}
            self._handle_repeat(section[entry], sections[entry])

    def _write_line(self, indent_string, entry, this_entry, comment):
        """Write an individual line, for the write method"""
        # NOTE: the calls to self._quote here handles non-StringType values.
        if not self.unrepr:
            val = self._decode_element(self._quote(this_entry))
        else:
            val = repr(this_entry)
        return '%s%s%s%s%s' % (
            indent_string,
            self._decode_element(self._quote(entry, multiline=False)),
            self._a_to_u(' = '),
            val,
            self._decode_element(comment))

    def _write_marker(self, indent_string, depth, entry, comment):
        """Write a section marker line"""
        return '%s%s%s%s%s' % (
            indent_string,
            self._a_to_u('[' * depth),
            self._quote(self._decode_element(entry), multiline=False),
            self._a_to_u(']' * depth),
            self._decode_element(comment))

    def _handle_comment(self, comment):
        """Deal with a comment."""
        if not comment:
            return ''
        start = self.indent_type
        if not comment.startswith('#'):
            start += self._a_to_u(' # ')
        return (start + comment)

    # Public methods

    def write(self, outfile=None, section=None):
        """
        Write the current ConfigObj as a file
        
        tekNico: FIXME: use StringIO instead of real files
        
        >>> filename = a.filename
        >>> a.filename = 'test.ini'
        >>> a.write()
        >>> a.filename = filename
        >>> a == ConfigObj('test.ini', raise_errors=True)
        1
        """
        if self.indent_type is None:
            # this can be true if initialised from a dictionary
            self.indent_type = DEFAULT_INDENT_TYPE
        #
        out = []
        cs = self._a_to_u('#')
        csp = self._a_to_u('# ')
        if section is None:
            int_val = self.interpolation
            self.interpolation = False
            section = self
            for line in self.initial_comment:
                line = self._decode_element(line)
                stripped_line = line.strip()
                if stripped_line and not stripped_line.startswith(cs):
                    line = csp + line
                out.append(line)
        #
        indent_string = self.indent_type * section.depth
        for entry in (section.scalars + section.sections):
            if entry in section.defaults:
                # don't write out default values
                continue
            for comment_line in section.comments[entry]:
                comment_line = self._decode_element(comment_line.lstrip())
                if comment_line and not comment_line.startswith(cs):
                    comment_line = csp + comment_line
                out.append(indent_string + comment_line)
            this_entry = section[entry]
            comment = self._handle_comment(section.inline_comments[entry])
            #
            if isinstance(this_entry, dict):
                # a section
                out.append(self._write_marker(
                    indent_string,
                    this_entry.depth,
                    entry,
                    comment))
                out.extend(self.write(section=this_entry))
            else:
                out.append(self._write_line(
                    indent_string,
                    entry,
                    this_entry,
                    comment))
        #
        if section is self:
            for line in self.final_comment:
                line = self._decode_element(line)
                stripped_line = line.strip()
                if stripped_line and not stripped_line.startswith(cs):
                    line = csp + line
                out.append(line)
            self.interpolation = int_val
        #
        if section is not self:
            return out
        #
        if (self.filename is None) and (outfile is None):
            # output a list of lines
            # might need to encode
            # NOTE: This will *screw* UTF16, each line will start with the BOM
            if self.encoding:
                out = [l.encode(self.encoding) for l in out]
            if (self.BOM and ((self.encoding is None) or
                (BOM_LIST.get(self.encoding.lower()) == 'utf_8'))):
                # Add the UTF8 BOM
                if not out:
                    out.append('')
                out[0] = BOM_UTF8 + out[0]
            return out
        #
        # Turn the list to a string, joined with correct newlines
        output = (self._a_to_u(self.newlines or os.linesep)
            ).join(out)
        if self.encoding:
            output = output.encode(self.encoding)
        if (self.BOM and ((self.encoding is None) or
            (BOM_LIST.get(self.encoding.lower()) == 'utf_8'))):
            # Add the UTF8 BOM
            output = BOM_UTF8 + output
        if outfile is not None:
            outfile.write(output)
        else:
            h = open(self.filename, 'wb')
            h.write(output)
            h.close()

    def validate(self, validator, preserve_errors=False, copy=False,
        section=None):
        """
        Test the ConfigObj against a configspec.
        
        It uses the ``validator`` object from *validate.py*.
        
        To run ``validate`` on the current ConfigObj, call: ::
        
            test = config.validate(validator)
        
        (Normally having previously passed in the configspec when the ConfigObj
        was created - you can dynamically assign a dictionary of checks to the
        ``configspec`` attribute of a section though).
        
        It returns ``True`` if everything passes, or a dictionary of
        pass/fails (True/False). If every member of a subsection passes, it
        will just have the value ``True``. (It also returns ``False`` if all
        members fail).
        
        In addition, it converts the values from strings to their native
        types if their checks pass (and ``stringify`` is set).
        
        If ``preserve_errors`` is ``True`` (``False`` is default) then instead
        of a marking a fail with a ``False``, it will preserve the actual
        exception object. This can contain info about the reason for failure.
        For example the ``VdtValueTooSmallError`` indeicates that the value
        supplied was too small. If a value (or section) is missing it will
        still be marked as ``False``.
        
        You must have the validate module to use ``preserve_errors=True``.
        
        You can then use the ``flatten_errors`` function to turn your nested
        results dictionary into a flattened list of failures - useful for
        displaying meaningful error messages.
        """
        if section is None:
            if self.configspec is None:
                raise ValueError, 'No configspec supplied.'
            if preserve_errors:
                if VdtMissingValue is None:
                    raise ImportError('Missing validate module.')
            section = self
        #
        spec_section = section.configspec
        if copy and hasattr(section, '_configspec_initial_comment'):
            section.initial_comment = section._configspec_initial_comment
            section.final_comment = section._configspec_final_comment
            section.encoding = section._configspec_encoding
            section.BOM = section._configspec_BOM
            section.newlines = section._configspec_newlines
            section.indent_type = section._configspec_indent_type
        if '__many__' in section.configspec:
            many = spec_section['__many__']
            # dynamically assign the configspecs
            # for the sections below
            for entry in section.sections:
                self._handle_repeat(section[entry], many)
        #
        out = {}
        ret_true = True
        ret_false = True
        order = [k for k in section._order if k in spec_section]
        order += [k for k in spec_section if k not in order]
        for entry in order:
            if entry == '__many__':
                continue
            if (not entry in section.scalars) or (entry in section.defaults):
                # missing entries
                # or entries from defaults
                missing = True
                val = None
                if copy and not entry in section.scalars:
                    # copy comments
                    section.comments[entry] = (
                        section._configspec_comments.get(entry, []))
                    section.inline_comments[entry] = (
                        section._configspec_inline_comments.get(entry, ''))
                #
            else:
                missing = False
                val = section[entry]
            try:
                check = validator.check(spec_section[entry],
                                        val,
                                        missing=missing
                                        )
            except validator.baseErrorClass, e:
                if not preserve_errors or isinstance(e, VdtMissingValue):
                    out[entry] = False
                else:
                    # preserve the error
                    out[entry] = e
                    ret_false = False
                ret_true = False
            else:
                ret_false = False
                out[entry] = True
                if self.stringify or missing:
                    # if we are doing type conversion
                    # or the value is a supplied default
                    if not self.stringify:
                        if isinstance(check, (list, tuple)):
                            # preserve lists
                            check = [self._str(item) for item in check]
                        elif missing and check is None:
                            # convert the None from a default to a ''
                            check = ''
                        else:
                            check = self._str(check)
                    if (check != val) or missing:
                        section[entry] = check
                if not copy and missing and entry not in section.defaults:
                    section.defaults.append(entry)
        #
        # Missing sections will have been created as empty ones when the
        # configspec was read.
        for entry in section.sections:
            # FIXME: this means DEFAULT is not copied in copy mode
            if section is self and entry == 'DEFAULT':
                continue
            if copy:
                section.comments[entry] = section._cs_section_comments[entry]
                section.inline_comments[entry] = (
                    section._cs_section_inline_comments[entry])
            check = self.validate(validator, preserve_errors=preserve_errors,
                copy=copy, section=section[entry])
            out[entry] = check
            if check == False:
                ret_true = False
            elif check == True:
                ret_false = False
            else:
                ret_true = False
                ret_false = False
        #
        if ret_true:
            return True
        elif ret_false:
            return False
        else:
            return out

class SimpleVal(object):
    """
    A simple validator.
    Can be used to check that all members expected are present.
    
    To use it, provide a configspec with all your members in (the value given
    will be ignored). Pass an instance of ``SimpleVal`` to the ``validate``
    method of your ``ConfigObj``. ``validate`` will return ``True`` if all
    members are present, or a dictionary with True/False meaning
    present/missing. (Whole missing sections will be replaced with ``False``)
    """
    
    def __init__(self):
        self.baseErrorClass = ConfigObjError
    
    def check(self, check, member, missing=False):
        """A dummy check method, always returns the value unchanged."""
        if missing:
            raise self.baseErrorClass
        return member

# Check / processing functions for options
def flatten_errors(cfg, res, levels=None, results=None):
    """
    An example function that will turn a nested dictionary of results
    (as returned by ``ConfigObj.validate``) into a flat list.
    
    ``cfg`` is the ConfigObj instance being checked, ``res`` is the results
    dictionary returned by ``validate``.
    
    (This is a recursive function, so you shouldn't use the ``levels`` or
    ``results`` arguments - they are used by the function.
    
    Returns a list of keys that failed. Each member of the list is a tuple :
    ::
    
        ([list of sections...], key, result)
    
    If ``validate`` was called with ``preserve_errors=False`` (the default)
    then ``result`` will always be ``False``.

    *list of sections* is a flattened list of sections that the key was found
    in.
    
    If the section was missing then key will be ``None``.
    
    If the value (or section) was missing then ``result`` will be ``False``.
    
    If ``validate`` was called with ``preserve_errors=True`` and a value
    was present, but failed the check, then ``result`` will be the exception
    object returned. You can use this as a string that describes the failure.
    
    For example *The value "3" is of the wrong type*.
    
    >>> import validate
    >>> vtor = validate.Validator()
    >>> my_ini = '''
    ...     option1 = True
    ...     [section1]
    ...     option1 = True
    ...     [section2]
    ...     another_option = Probably
    ...     [section3]
    ...     another_option = True
    ...     [[section3b]]
    ...     value = 3
    ...     value2 = a
    ...     value3 = 11
    ...     '''
    >>> my_cfg = '''
    ...     option1 = boolean()
    ...     option2 = boolean()
    ...     option3 = boolean(default=Bad_value)
    ...     [section1]
    ...     option1 = boolean()
    ...     option2 = boolean()
    ...     option3 = boolean(default=Bad_value)
    ...     [section2]
    ...     another_option = boolean()
    ...     [section3]
    ...     another_option = boolean()
    ...     [[section3b]]
    ...     value = integer
    ...     value2 = integer
    ...     value3 = integer(0, 10)
    ...         [[[section3b-sub]]]
    ...         value = string
    ...     [section4]
    ...     another_option = boolean()
    ...     '''
    >>> cs = my_cfg.split('\\n')
    >>> ini = my_ini.split('\\n')
    >>> cfg = ConfigObj(ini, configspec=cs)
    >>> res = cfg.validate(vtor, preserve_errors=True)
    >>> errors = []
    >>> for entry in flatten_errors(cfg, res):
    ...     section_list, key, error = entry
    ...     section_list.insert(0, '[root]')
    ...     if key is not None:
    ...        section_list.append(key)
    ...     else:
    ...         section_list.append('[missing]')
    ...     section_string = ', '.join(section_list)
    ...     errors.append((section_string, ' = ', error))
    >>> errors.sort()
    >>> for entry in errors:
    ...     print entry[0], entry[1], (entry[2] or 0)
    [root], option2  =  0
    [root], option3  =  the value "Bad_value" is of the wrong type.
    [root], section1, option2  =  0
    [root], section1, option3  =  the value "Bad_value" is of the wrong type.
    [root], section2, another_option  =  the value "Probably" is of the wrong type.
    [root], section3, section3b, section3b-sub, [missing]  =  0
    [root], section3, section3b, value2  =  the value "a" is of the wrong type.
    [root], section3, section3b, value3  =  the value "11" is too big.
    [root], section4, [missing]  =  0
    """
    if levels is None:
        # first time called
        levels = []
        results = []
    if res is True:
        return results
    if res is False:
        results.append((levels[:], None, False))
        if levels:
            levels.pop()
        return results
    for (key, val) in res.items():
        if val == True:
            continue
        if isinstance(cfg.get(key), dict):
            # Go down one level
            levels.append(key)
            flatten_errors(cfg[key], val, levels, results)
            continue
        results.append((levels[:], key, val))
    #
    # Go up one level
    if levels:
        levels.pop()
    #
    return results

"""*A programming language is a medium of expression.* - Paul Graham"""