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// © 2016 and later: Unicode, Inc. and others.
// License & terms of use: http://www.unicode.org/copyright.html
/*
******************************************************************************
*   Copyright (C) 1996-2016, International Business Machines
*   Corporation and others.  All Rights Reserved.
******************************************************************************
*/

/**
 * \file
 * \brief C++ API: Collation Service.
 */

/**
* File coll.h
*
* Created by: Helena Shih
*
* Modification History:
*
*  Date        Name        Description
* 02/5/97      aliu        Modified createDefault to load collation data from
*                          binary files when possible.  Added related methods
*                          createCollationFromFile, chopLocale, createPathName.
* 02/11/97     aliu        Added members addToCache, findInCache, and fgCache.
* 02/12/97     aliu        Modified to create objects from RuleBasedCollator cache.
*                          Moved cache out of Collation class.
* 02/13/97     aliu        Moved several methods out of this class and into
*                          RuleBasedCollator, with modifications.  Modified
*                          createDefault() to call new RuleBasedCollator(Locale&)
*                          constructor.  General clean up and documentation.
* 02/20/97     helena      Added clone, operator==, operator!=, operator=, copy
*                          constructor and getDynamicClassID.
* 03/25/97     helena      Updated with platform independent data types.
* 05/06/97     helena      Added memory allocation error detection.
* 06/20/97     helena      Java class name change.
* 09/03/97     helena      Added createCollationKeyValues().
* 02/10/98     damiba      Added compare() with length as parameter.
* 04/23/99     stephen     Removed EDecompositionMode, merged with
*                          Normalizer::EMode.
* 11/02/99     helena      Collator performance enhancements.  Eliminates the
*                          UnicodeString construction and special case for NO_OP.
* 11/23/99     srl         More performance enhancements. Inlining of
*                          critical accessors.
* 05/15/00     helena      Added version information API.
* 01/29/01     synwee      Modified into a C++ wrapper which calls C apis
*                          (ucol.h).
* 2012-2014    markus      Rewritten in C++ again.
*/

#ifndef COLL_H
#define COLL_H

#include "unicode/utypes.h"

#if U_SHOW_CPLUSPLUS_API

#if !UCONFIG_NO_COLLATION

#include "unicode/uobject.h"
#include "unicode/ucol.h"
#include "unicode/unorm.h"
#include "unicode/locid.h"
#include "unicode/uniset.h"
#include "unicode/umisc.h"
#include "unicode/uiter.h"
#include "unicode/stringpiece.h"

U_NAMESPACE_BEGIN

class StringEnumeration;

#if !UCONFIG_NO_SERVICE
/**
 * @stable ICU 2.6
 */
class CollatorFactory;
#endif

/**
* @stable ICU 2.0
*/
class CollationKey;

/**
* The <code>Collator</code> class performs locale-sensitive string
* comparison.<br>
* You use this class to build searching and sorting routines for natural
* language text.
* <p>
* <code>Collator</code> is an abstract base class. Subclasses implement
* specific collation strategies. One subclass,
* <code>RuleBasedCollator</code>, is currently provided and is applicable
* to a wide set of languages. Other subclasses may be created to handle more
* specialized needs.
* <p>
* Like other locale-sensitive classes, you can use the static factory method,
* <code>createInstance</code>, to obtain the appropriate
* <code>Collator</code> object for a given locale. You will only need to
* look at the subclasses of <code>Collator</code> if you need to
* understand the details of a particular collation strategy or if you need to
* modify that strategy.
* <p>
* The following example shows how to compare two strings using the
* <code>Collator</code> for the default locale.
* \htmlonly<blockquote>\endhtmlonly
* <pre>
* \code
* // Compare two strings in the default locale
* UErrorCode success = U_ZERO_ERROR;
* Collator* myCollator = Collator::createInstance(success);
* if (myCollator->compare("abc", "ABC") < 0)
*   cout << "abc is less than ABC" << endl;
* else
*   cout << "abc is greater than or equal to ABC" << endl;
* \endcode
* </pre>
* \htmlonly</blockquote>\endhtmlonly
* <p>
* You can set a <code>Collator</code>'s <em>strength</em> attribute to
* determine the level of difference considered significant in comparisons.
* Five strengths are provided: <code>PRIMARY</code>, <code>SECONDARY</code>,
* <code>TERTIARY</code>, <code>QUATERNARY</code> and <code>IDENTICAL</code>.
* The exact assignment of strengths to language features is locale dependent.
* For example, in Czech, "e" and "f" are considered primary differences,
* while "e" and "\u00EA" are secondary differences, "e" and "E" are tertiary
* differences and "e" and "e" are identical. The following shows how both case
* and accents could be ignored for US English.
* \htmlonly<blockquote>\endhtmlonly
* <pre>
* \code
* //Get the Collator for US English and set its strength to PRIMARY
* UErrorCode success = U_ZERO_ERROR;
* Collator* usCollator = Collator::createInstance(Locale::getUS(), success);
* usCollator->setStrength(Collator::PRIMARY);
* if (usCollator->compare("abc", "ABC") == 0)
*     cout << "'abc' and 'ABC' strings are equivalent with strength PRIMARY" << endl;
* \endcode
* </pre>
* \htmlonly</blockquote>\endhtmlonly
*
* The <code>getSortKey</code> methods
* convert a string to a series of bytes that can be compared bitwise against
* other sort keys using <code>strcmp()</code>. Sort keys are written as
* zero-terminated byte strings.
*
* Another set of APIs returns a <code>CollationKey</code> object that wraps
* the sort key bytes instead of returning the bytes themselves.
* </p>
* <p>
* <strong>Note:</strong> <code>Collator</code>s with different Locale,
* and CollationStrength settings will return different sort
* orders for the same set of strings. Locales have specific collation rules,
* and the way in which secondary and tertiary differences are taken into
* account, for example, will result in a different sorting order for same
* strings.
* </p>
* @see         RuleBasedCollator
* @see         CollationKey
* @see         CollationElementIterator
* @see         Locale
* @see         Normalizer2
* @version     2.0 11/15/01
*/

class U_I18N_API Collator : public UObject {
public:

    // Collator public enums -----------------------------------------------

    /**
     * Base letter represents a primary difference. Set comparison level to
     * PRIMARY to ignore secondary and tertiary differences.<br>
     * Use this to set the strength of a Collator object.<br>
     * Example of primary difference, "abc" &lt; "abd"
     *
     * Diacritical differences on the same base letter represent a secondary
     * difference. Set comparison level to SECONDARY to ignore tertiary
     * differences. Use this to set the strength of a Collator object.<br>
     * Example of secondary difference, "&auml;" >> "a".
     *
     * Uppercase and lowercase versions of the same character represents a
     * tertiary difference.  Set comparison level to TERTIARY to include all
     * comparison differences. Use this to set the strength of a Collator
     * object.<br>
     * Example of tertiary difference, "abc" &lt;&lt;&lt; "ABC".
     *
     * Two characters are considered "identical" when they have the same unicode
     * spellings.<br>
     * For example, "&auml;" == "&auml;".
     *
     * UCollationStrength is also used to determine the strength of sort keys
     * generated from Collator objects.
     * @stable ICU 2.0
     */
    enum ECollationStrength
    {
        PRIMARY    = UCOL_PRIMARY,  // 0
        SECONDARY  = UCOL_SECONDARY,  // 1
        TERTIARY   = UCOL_TERTIARY,  // 2
        QUATERNARY = UCOL_QUATERNARY,  // 3
        IDENTICAL  = UCOL_IDENTICAL  // 15
    };


    // Cannot use #ifndef U_HIDE_DEPRECATED_API for the following, it is
    // used by virtual methods that cannot have that conditional.
#ifndef U_FORCE_HIDE_DEPRECATED_API
    /**
     * LESS is returned if source string is compared to be less than target
     * string in the compare() method.
     * EQUAL is returned if source string is compared to be equal to target
     * string in the compare() method.
     * GREATER is returned if source string is compared to be greater than
     * target string in the compare() method.
     * @see Collator#compare
     * @deprecated ICU 2.6. Use C enum UCollationResult defined in ucol.h
     */
    enum EComparisonResult
    {
        LESS = UCOL_LESS,  // -1
        EQUAL = UCOL_EQUAL,  // 0
        GREATER = UCOL_GREATER  // 1
    };
#endif  // U_FORCE_HIDE_DEPRECATED_API

    // Collator public destructor -----------------------------------------

    /**
     * Destructor
     * @stable ICU 2.0
     */
    virtual ~Collator();

    // Collator public methods --------------------------------------------

    /**
     * Returns TRUE if "other" is the same as "this".
     *
     * The base class implementation returns TRUE if "other" has the same type/class as "this":
     * `typeid(*this) == typeid(other)`.
     *
     * Subclass implementations should do something like the following:
     *
     *     if (this == &other) { return TRUE; }
     *     if (!Collator::operator==(other)) { return FALSE; }  // not the same class
     *
     *     const MyCollator &o = (const MyCollator&)other;
     *     (compare this vs. o's subclass fields)
     *
     * @param other Collator object to be compared
     * @return TRUE if other is the same as this.
     * @stable ICU 2.0
     */
    virtual UBool operator==(const Collator& other) const;

    /**
     * Returns true if "other" is not the same as "this".
     * Calls ! operator==(const Collator&) const which works for all subclasses.
     * @param other Collator object to be compared
     * @return TRUE if other is not the same as this.
     * @stable ICU 2.0
     */
    virtual UBool operator!=(const Collator& other) const;

    /**
     * Makes a copy of this object.
     * @return a copy of this object, owned by the caller
     * @stable ICU 2.0
     */
    virtual Collator* clone() const = 0;

    /**
     * Creates the Collator object for the current default locale.
     * The default locale is determined by Locale::getDefault.
     * The UErrorCode& err parameter is used to return status information to the user.
     * To check whether the construction succeeded or not, you should check the
     * value of U_SUCCESS(err).  If you wish more detailed information, you can
     * check for informational error results which still indicate success.
     * U_USING_FALLBACK_ERROR indicates that a fall back locale was used. For
     * example, 'de_CH' was requested, but nothing was found there, so 'de' was
     * used. U_USING_DEFAULT_ERROR indicates that the default locale data was
     * used; neither the requested locale nor any of its fall back locales
     * could be found.
     * The caller owns the returned object and is responsible for deleting it.
     *
     * @param err    the error code status.
     * @return       the collation object of the default locale.(for example, en_US)
     * @see Locale#getDefault
     * @stable ICU 2.0
     */
    static Collator* U_EXPORT2 createInstance(UErrorCode&  err);

    /**
     * Gets the collation object for the desired locale. The
     * resource of the desired locale will be loaded.
     *
     * Locale::getRoot() is the base collation table and all other languages are
     * built on top of it with additional language-specific modifications.
     *
     * For some languages, multiple collation types are available;
     * for example, "de@collation=phonebook".
     * Starting with ICU 54, collation attributes can be specified via locale keywords as well,
     * in the old locale extension syntax ("el@colCaseFirst=upper")
     * or in language tag syntax ("el-u-kf-upper").
     * See <a href="http://userguide.icu-project.org/collation/api">User Guide: Collation API</a>.
     *
     * The UErrorCode& err parameter is used to return status information to the user.
     * To check whether the construction succeeded or not, you should check
     * the value of U_SUCCESS(err).  If you wish more detailed information, you
     * can check for informational error results which still indicate success.
     * U_USING_FALLBACK_ERROR indicates that a fall back locale was used.  For
     * example, 'de_CH' was requested, but nothing was found there, so 'de' was
     * used.  U_USING_DEFAULT_ERROR indicates that the default locale data was
     * used; neither the requested locale nor any of its fall back locales
     * could be found.
     *
     * The caller owns the returned object and is responsible for deleting it.
     * @param loc    The locale ID for which to open a collator.
     * @param err    the error code status.
     * @return       the created table-based collation object based on the desired
     *               locale.
     * @see Locale
     * @see ResourceLoader
     * @stable ICU 2.2
     */
    static Collator* U_EXPORT2 createInstance(const Locale& loc, UErrorCode& err);

#ifndef U_FORCE_HIDE_DEPRECATED_API
    /**
     * The comparison function compares the character data stored in two
     * different strings. Returns information about whether a string is less
     * than, greater than or equal to another string.
     * @param source the source string to be compared with.
     * @param target the string that is to be compared with the source string.
     * @return Returns a byte value. GREATER if source is greater
     * than target; EQUAL if source is equal to target; LESS if source is less
     * than target
     * @deprecated ICU 2.6 use the overload with UErrorCode &
     */
    virtual EComparisonResult compare(const UnicodeString& source,
                                      const UnicodeString& target) const;
#endif  // U_FORCE_HIDE_DEPRECATED_API

    /**
     * The comparison function compares the character data stored in two
     * different strings. Returns information about whether a string is less
     * than, greater than or equal to another string.
     * @param source the source string to be compared with.
     * @param target the string that is to be compared with the source string.
     * @param status possible error code
     * @return Returns an enum value. UCOL_GREATER if source is greater
     * than target; UCOL_EQUAL if source is equal to target; UCOL_LESS if source is less
     * than target
     * @stable ICU 2.6
     */
    virtual UCollationResult compare(const UnicodeString& source,
                                      const UnicodeString& target,
                                      UErrorCode &status) const = 0;

#ifndef U_FORCE_HIDE_DEPRECATED_API
    /**
     * Does the same thing as compare but limits the comparison to a specified
     * length
     * @param source the source string to be compared with.
     * @param target the string that is to be compared with the source string.
     * @param length the length the comparison is limited to
     * @return Returns a byte value. GREATER if source (up to the specified
     *         length) is greater than target; EQUAL if source (up to specified
     *         length) is equal to target; LESS if source (up to the specified
     *         length) is less  than target.
     * @deprecated ICU 2.6 use the overload with UErrorCode &
     */
    virtual EComparisonResult compare(const UnicodeString& source,
                                      const UnicodeString& target,
                                      int32_t length) const;
#endif  // U_FORCE_HIDE_DEPRECATED_API

    /**
     * Does the same thing as compare but limits the comparison to a specified
     * length
     * @param source the source string to be compared with.
     * @param target the string that is to be compared with the source string.
     * @param length the length the comparison is limited to
     * @param status possible error code
     * @return Returns an enum value. UCOL_GREATER if source (up to the specified
     *         length) is greater than target; UCOL_EQUAL if source (up to specified
     *         length) is equal to target; UCOL_LESS if source (up to the specified
     *         length) is less  than target.
     * @stable ICU 2.6
     */
    virtual UCollationResult compare(const UnicodeString& source,
                                      const UnicodeString& target,
                                      int32_t length,
                                      UErrorCode &status) const = 0;

#ifndef U_FORCE_HIDE_DEPRECATED_API
    /**
     * The comparison function compares the character data stored in two
     * different string arrays. Returns information about whether a string array
     * is less than, greater than or equal to another string array.
     * <p>Example of use:
     * <pre>
     * .       char16_t ABC[] = {0x41, 0x42, 0x43, 0};  // = "ABC"
     * .       char16_t abc[] = {0x61, 0x62, 0x63, 0};  // = "abc"
     * .       UErrorCode status = U_ZERO_ERROR;
     * .       Collator *myCollation =
     * .                         Collator::createInstance(Locale::getUS(), status);
     * .       if (U_FAILURE(status)) return;
     * .       myCollation->setStrength(Collator::PRIMARY);
     * .       // result would be Collator::EQUAL ("abc" == "ABC")
     * .       // (no primary difference between "abc" and "ABC")
     * .       Collator::EComparisonResult result =
     * .                             myCollation->compare(abc, 3, ABC, 3);
     * .       myCollation->setStrength(Collator::TERTIARY);
     * .       // result would be Collator::LESS ("abc" &lt;&lt;&lt; "ABC")
     * .       // (with tertiary difference between "abc" and "ABC")
     * .       result = myCollation->compare(abc, 3, ABC, 3);
     * </pre>
     * @param source the source string array to be compared with.
     * @param sourceLength the length of the source string array.  If this value
     *        is equal to -1, the string array is null-terminated.
     * @param target the string that is to be compared with the source string.
     * @param targetLength the length of the target string array.  If this value
     *        is equal to -1, the string array is null-terminated.
     * @return Returns a byte value. GREATER if source is greater than target;
     *         EQUAL if source is equal to target; LESS if source is less than
     *         target
     * @deprecated ICU 2.6 use the overload with UErrorCode &
     */
    virtual EComparisonResult compare(const char16_t* source, int32_t sourceLength,
                                      const char16_t* target, int32_t targetLength)
                                      const;
#endif  // U_FORCE_HIDE_DEPRECATED_API

    /**
     * The comparison function compares the character data stored in two
     * different string arrays. Returns information about whether a string array
     * is less than, greater than or equal to another string array.
     * @param source the source string array to be compared with.
     * @param sourceLength the length of the source string array.  If this value
     *        is equal to -1, the string array is null-terminated.
     * @param target the string that is to be compared with the source string.
     * @param targetLength the length of the target string array.  If this value
     *        is equal to -1, the string array is null-terminated.
     * @param status possible error code
     * @return Returns an enum value. UCOL_GREATER if source is greater
     * than target; UCOL_EQUAL if source is equal to target; UCOL_LESS if source is less
     * than target
     * @stable ICU 2.6
     */
    virtual UCollationResult compare(const char16_t* source, int32_t sourceLength,
                                      const char16_t* target, int32_t targetLength,
                                      UErrorCode &status) const = 0;

    /**
     * Compares two strings using the Collator.
     * Returns whether the first one compares less than/equal to/greater than
     * the second one.
     * This version takes UCharIterator input.
     * @param sIter the first ("source") string iterator
     * @param tIter the second ("target") string iterator
     * @param status ICU status
     * @return UCOL_LESS, UCOL_EQUAL or UCOL_GREATER
     * @stable ICU 4.2
     */
    virtual UCollationResult compare(UCharIterator &sIter,
                                     UCharIterator &tIter,
                                     UErrorCode &status) const;

    /**
     * Compares two UTF-8 strings using the Collator.
     * Returns whether the first one compares less than/equal to/greater than
     * the second one.
     * This version takes UTF-8 input.
     * Note that a StringPiece can be implicitly constructed
     * from a std::string or a NUL-terminated const char * string.
     * @param source the first UTF-8 string
     * @param target the second UTF-8 string
     * @param status ICU status
     * @return UCOL_LESS, UCOL_EQUAL or UCOL_GREATER
     * @stable ICU 4.2
     */
    virtual UCollationResult compareUTF8(const StringPiece &source,
                                         const StringPiece &target,
                                         UErrorCode &status) const;

    /**
     * Transforms the string into a series of characters that can be compared
     * with CollationKey::compareTo. It is not possible to restore the original
     * string from the chars in the sort key.
     * <p>Use CollationKey::equals or CollationKey::compare to compare the
     * generated sort keys.
     * If the source string is null, a null collation key will be returned.
     *
     * Note that sort keys are often less efficient than simply doing comparison.
     * For more details, see the ICU User Guide.
     *
     * @param source the source string to be transformed into a sort key.
     * @param key the collation key to be filled in
     * @param status the error code status.
     * @return the collation key of the string based on the collation rules.
     * @see CollationKey#compare
     * @stable ICU 2.0
     */
    virtual CollationKey& getCollationKey(const UnicodeString&  source,
                                          CollationKey& key,
                                          UErrorCode& status) const = 0;

    /**
     * Transforms the string into a series of characters that can be compared
     * with CollationKey::compareTo. It is not possible to restore the original
     * string from the chars in the sort key.
     * <p>Use CollationKey::equals or CollationKey::compare to compare the
     * generated sort keys.
     * <p>If the source string is null, a null collation key will be returned.
     *
     * Note that sort keys are often less efficient than simply doing comparison.
     * For more details, see the ICU User Guide.
     *
     * @param source the source string to be transformed into a sort key.
     * @param sourceLength length of the collation key
     * @param key the collation key to be filled in
     * @param status the error code status.
     * @return the collation key of the string based on the collation rules.
     * @see CollationKey#compare
     * @stable ICU 2.0
     */
    virtual CollationKey& getCollationKey(const char16_t*source,
                                          int32_t sourceLength,
                                          CollationKey& key,
                                          UErrorCode& status) const = 0;
    /**
     * Generates the hash code for the collation object
     * @stable ICU 2.0
     */
    virtual int32_t hashCode(void) const = 0;

#ifndef U_FORCE_HIDE_DEPRECATED_API
    /**
     * Gets the locale of the Collator
     *
     * @param type can be either requested, valid or actual locale. For more
     *             information see the definition of ULocDataLocaleType in
     *             uloc.h
     * @param status the error code status.
     * @return locale where the collation data lives. If the collator
     *         was instantiated from rules, locale is empty.
     * @deprecated ICU 2.8 This API is under consideration for revision
     * in ICU 3.0.
     */
    virtual Locale getLocale(ULocDataLocaleType type, UErrorCode& status) const = 0;
#endif  // U_FORCE_HIDE_DEPRECATED_API

    /**
     * Convenience method for comparing two strings based on the collation rules.
     * @param source the source string to be compared with.
     * @param target the target string to be compared with.
     * @return true if the first string is greater than the second one,
     *         according to the collation rules. false, otherwise.
     * @see Collator#compare
     * @stable ICU 2.0
     */
    UBool greater(const UnicodeString& source, const UnicodeString& target)
                  const;

    /**
     * Convenience method for comparing two strings based on the collation rules.
     * @param source the source string to be compared with.
     * @param target the target string to be compared with.
     * @return true if the first string is greater than or equal to the second
     *         one, according to the collation rules. false, otherwise.
     * @see Collator#compare
     * @stable ICU 2.0
     */
    UBool greaterOrEqual(const UnicodeString& source,
                         const UnicodeString& target) const;

    /**
     * Convenience method for comparing two strings based on the collation rules.
     * @param source the source string to be compared with.
     * @param target the target string to be compared with.
     * @return true if the strings are equal according to the collation rules.
     *         false, otherwise.
     * @see Collator#compare
     * @stable ICU 2.0
     */
    UBool equals(const UnicodeString& source, const UnicodeString& target) const;

#ifndef U_FORCE_HIDE_DEPRECATED_API
    /**
     * Determines the minimum strength that will be used in comparison or
     * transformation.
     * <p>E.g. with strength == SECONDARY, the tertiary difference is ignored
     * <p>E.g. with strength == PRIMARY, the secondary and tertiary difference
     * are ignored.
     * @return the current comparison level.
     * @see Collator#setStrength
     * @deprecated ICU 2.6 Use getAttribute(UCOL_STRENGTH...) instead
     */
    virtual ECollationStrength getStrength(void) const;

    /**
     * Sets the minimum strength to be used in comparison or transformation.
     * <p>Example of use:
     * <pre>
     *  \code
     *  UErrorCode status = U_ZERO_ERROR;
     *  Collator*myCollation = Collator::createInstance(Locale::getUS(), status);
     *  if (U_FAILURE(status)) return;
     *  myCollation->setStrength(Collator::PRIMARY);
     *  // result will be "abc" == "ABC"
     *  // tertiary differences will be ignored
     *  Collator::ComparisonResult result = myCollation->compare("abc", "ABC");
     * \endcode
     * </pre>
     * @see Collator#getStrength
     * @param newStrength the new comparison level.
     * @deprecated ICU 2.6 Use setAttribute(UCOL_STRENGTH...) instead
     */
    virtual void setStrength(ECollationStrength newStrength);
#endif  // U_FORCE_HIDE_DEPRECATED_API

    /**
     * Retrieves the reordering codes for this collator.
     * @param dest The array to fill with the script ordering.
     * @param destCapacity The length of dest. If it is 0, then dest may be NULL and the function
     *  will only return the length of the result without writing any codes (pre-flighting).
     * @param status A reference to an error code value, which must not indicate
     * a failure before the function call.
     * @return The length of the script ordering array.
     * @see ucol_setReorderCodes
     * @see Collator#getEquivalentReorderCodes
     * @see Collator#setReorderCodes
     * @see UScriptCode
     * @see UColReorderCode
     * @stable ICU 4.8
     */
     virtual int32_t getReorderCodes(int32_t *dest,
                                     int32_t destCapacity,
                                     UErrorCode& status) const;

    /**
     * Sets the ordering of scripts for this collator.
     *
     * <p>The reordering codes are a combination of script codes and reorder codes.
     * @param reorderCodes An array of script codes in the new order. This can be NULL if the
     * length is also set to 0. An empty array will clear any reordering codes on the collator.
     * @param reorderCodesLength The length of reorderCodes.
     * @param status error code
     * @see ucol_setReorderCodes
     * @see Collator#getReorderCodes
     * @see Collator#getEquivalentReorderCodes
     * @see UScriptCode
     * @see UColReorderCode
     * @stable ICU 4.8
     */
     virtual void setReorderCodes(const int32_t* reorderCodes,
                                  int32_t reorderCodesLength,
                                  UErrorCode& status) ;

    /**
     * Retrieves the reorder codes that are grouped with the given reorder code. Some reorder
     * codes will be grouped and must reorder together.
     * Beginning with ICU 55, scripts only reorder together if they are primary-equal,
     * for example Hiragana and Katakana.
     *
     * @param reorderCode The reorder code to determine equivalence for.
     * @param dest The array to fill with the script equivalence reordering codes.
     * @param destCapacity The length of dest. If it is 0, then dest may be NULL and the
     * function will only return the length of the result without writing any codes (pre-flighting).
     * @param status A reference to an error code value, which must not indicate
     * a failure before the function call.
     * @return The length of the of the reordering code equivalence array.
     * @see ucol_setReorderCodes
     * @see Collator#getReorderCodes
     * @see Collator#setReorderCodes
     * @see UScriptCode
     * @see UColReorderCode
     * @stable ICU 4.8
     */
    static int32_t U_EXPORT2 getEquivalentReorderCodes(int32_t reorderCode,
                                int32_t* dest,
                                int32_t destCapacity,
                                UErrorCode& status);

    /**
     * Get name of the object for the desired Locale, in the desired language
     * @param objectLocale must be from getAvailableLocales
     * @param displayLocale specifies the desired locale for output
     * @param name the fill-in parameter of the return value
     * @return display-able name of the object for the object locale in the
     *         desired language
     * @stable ICU 2.0
     */
    static UnicodeString& U_EXPORT2 getDisplayName(const Locale& objectLocale,
                                         const Locale& displayLocale,
                                         UnicodeString& name);

    /**
    * Get name of the object for the desired Locale, in the language of the
    * default locale.
    * @param objectLocale must be from getAvailableLocales
    * @param name the fill-in parameter of the return value
    * @return name of the object for the desired locale in the default language
    * @stable ICU 2.0
    */
    static UnicodeString& U_EXPORT2 getDisplayName(const Locale& objectLocale,
                                         UnicodeString& name);

    /**
     * Get the set of Locales for which Collations are installed.
     *
     * <p>Note this does not include locales supported by registered collators.
     * If collators might have been registered, use the overload of getAvailableLocales
     * that returns a StringEnumeration.</p>
     *
     * @param count the output parameter of number of elements in the locale list
     * @return the list of available locales for which collations are installed
     * @stable ICU 2.0
     */
    static const Locale* U_EXPORT2 getAvailableLocales(int32_t& count);

    /**
     * Return a StringEnumeration over the locales available at the time of the call,
     * including registered locales.  If a severe error occurs (such as out of memory
     * condition) this will return null. If there is no locale data, an empty enumeration
     * will be returned.
     * @return a StringEnumeration over the locales available at the time of the call
     * @stable ICU 2.6
     */
    static StringEnumeration* U_EXPORT2 getAvailableLocales(void);

    /**
     * Create a string enumerator of all possible keywords that are relevant to
     * collation. At this point, the only recognized keyword for this
     * service is "collation".
     * @param status input-output error code
     * @return a string enumeration over locale strings. The caller is
     * responsible for closing the result.
     * @stable ICU 3.0
     */
    static StringEnumeration* U_EXPORT2 getKeywords(UErrorCode& status);

    /**
     * Given a keyword, create a string enumeration of all values
     * for that keyword that are currently in use.
     * @param keyword a particular keyword as enumerated by
     * ucol_getKeywords. If any other keyword is passed in, status is set
     * to U_ILLEGAL_ARGUMENT_ERROR.
     * @param status input-output error code
     * @return a string enumeration over collation keyword values, or NULL
     * upon error. The caller is responsible for deleting the result.
     * @stable ICU 3.0
     */
    static StringEnumeration* U_EXPORT2 getKeywordValues(const char *keyword, UErrorCode& status);

    /**
     * Given a key and a locale, returns an array of string values in a preferred
     * order that would make a difference. These are all and only those values where
     * the open (creation) of the service with the locale formed from the input locale
     * plus input keyword and that value has different behavior than creation with the
     * input locale alone.
     * @param keyword        one of the keys supported by this service.  For now, only
     *                      "collation" is supported.
     * @param locale        the locale
     * @param commonlyUsed  if set to true it will return only commonly used values
     *                      with the given locale in preferred order.  Otherwise,
     *                      it will return all the available values for the locale.
     * @param status ICU status
     * @return a string enumeration over keyword values for the given key and the locale.
     * @stable ICU 4.2
     */
    static StringEnumeration* U_EXPORT2 getKeywordValuesForLocale(const char* keyword, const Locale& locale,
                                                                    UBool commonlyUsed, UErrorCode& status);

    /**
     * Return the functionally equivalent locale for the given
     * requested locale, with respect to given keyword, for the
     * collation service.  If two locales return the same result, then
     * collators instantiated for these locales will behave
     * equivalently.  The converse is not always true; two collators
     * may in fact be equivalent, but return different results, due to
     * internal details.  The return result has no other meaning than
     * that stated above, and implies nothing as to the relationship
     * between the two locales.  This is intended for use by
     * applications who wish to cache collators, or otherwise reuse
     * collators when possible.  The functional equivalent may change
     * over time.  For more information, please see the <a
     * href="http://userguide.icu-project.org/locale#TOC-Locales-and-Services">
     * Locales and Services</a> section of the ICU User Guide.
     * @param keyword a particular keyword as enumerated by
     * ucol_getKeywords.
     * @param locale the requested locale
     * @param isAvailable reference to a fillin parameter that
     * indicates whether the requested locale was 'available' to the
     * collation service. A locale is defined as 'available' if it
     * physically exists within the collation locale data.
     * @param status reference to input-output error code
     * @return the functionally equivalent collation locale, or the root
     * locale upon error.
     * @stable ICU 3.0
     */
    static Locale U_EXPORT2 getFunctionalEquivalent(const char* keyword, const Locale& locale,
                                          UBool& isAvailable, UErrorCode& status);

#if !UCONFIG_NO_SERVICE
    /**
     * Register a new Collator.  The collator will be adopted.
     * Because ICU may choose to cache collators internally, this must be
     * called at application startup, prior to any calls to
     * Collator::createInstance to avoid undefined behavior.
     * @param toAdopt the Collator instance to be adopted
     * @param locale the locale with which the collator will be associated
     * @param status the in/out status code, no special meanings are assigned
     * @return a registry key that can be used to unregister this collator
     * @stable ICU 2.6
     */
    static URegistryKey U_EXPORT2 registerInstance(Collator* toAdopt, const Locale& locale, UErrorCode& status);

    /**
     * Register a new CollatorFactory.  The factory will be adopted.
     * Because ICU may choose to cache collators internally, this must be
     * called at application startup, prior to any calls to
     * Collator::createInstance to avoid undefined behavior.
     * @param toAdopt the CollatorFactory instance to be adopted
     * @param status the in/out status code, no special meanings are assigned
     * @return a registry key that can be used to unregister this collator
     * @stable ICU 2.6
     */
    static URegistryKey U_EXPORT2 registerFactory(CollatorFactory* toAdopt, UErrorCode& status);

    /**
     * Unregister a previously-registered Collator or CollatorFactory
     * using the key returned from the register call.  Key becomes
     * invalid after a successful call and should not be used again.
     * The object corresponding to the key will be deleted.
     * Because ICU may choose to cache collators internally, this should
     * be called during application shutdown, after all calls to
     * Collator::createInstance to avoid undefined behavior.
     * @param key the registry key returned by a previous call to registerInstance
     * @param status the in/out status code, no special meanings are assigned
     * @return TRUE if the collator for the key was successfully unregistered
     * @stable ICU 2.6
     */
    static UBool U_EXPORT2 unregister(URegistryKey key, UErrorCode& status);
#endif /* UCONFIG_NO_SERVICE */

    /**
     * Gets the version information for a Collator.
     * @param info the version # information, the result will be filled in
     * @stable ICU 2.0
     */
    virtual void getVersion(UVersionInfo info) const = 0;

    /**
     * Returns a unique class ID POLYMORPHICALLY. Pure virtual method.
     * This method is to implement a simple version of RTTI, since not all C++
     * compilers support genuine RTTI. Polymorphic operator==() and clone()
     * methods call this method.
     * @return The class ID for this object. All objects of a given class have
     *         the same class ID.  Objects of other classes have different class
     *         IDs.
     * @stable ICU 2.0
     */
    virtual UClassID getDynamicClassID(void) const = 0;

    /**
     * Universal attribute setter
     * @param attr attribute type
     * @param value attribute value
     * @param status to indicate whether the operation went on smoothly or
     *        there were errors
     * @stable ICU 2.2
     */
    virtual void setAttribute(UColAttribute attr, UColAttributeValue value,
                              UErrorCode &status) = 0;

    /**
     * Universal attribute getter
     * @param attr attribute type
     * @param status to indicate whether the operation went on smoothly or
     *        there were errors
     * @return attribute value
     * @stable ICU 2.2
     */
    virtual UColAttributeValue getAttribute(UColAttribute attr,
                                            UErrorCode &status) const = 0;

    /**
     * Sets the variable top to the top of the specified reordering group.
     * The variable top determines the highest-sorting character
     * which is affected by UCOL_ALTERNATE_HANDLING.
     * If that attribute is set to UCOL_NON_IGNORABLE, then the variable top has no effect.
     *
     * The base class implementation sets U_UNSUPPORTED_ERROR.
     * @param group one of UCOL_REORDER_CODE_SPACE, UCOL_REORDER_CODE_PUNCTUATION,
     *              UCOL_REORDER_CODE_SYMBOL, UCOL_REORDER_CODE_CURRENCY;
     *              or UCOL_REORDER_CODE_DEFAULT to restore the default max variable group
     * @param errorCode Standard ICU error code. Its input value must
     *                  pass the U_SUCCESS() test, or else the function returns
     *                  immediately. Check for U_FAILURE() on output or use with
     *                  function chaining. (See User Guide for details.)
     * @return *this
     * @see getMaxVariable
     * @stable ICU 53
     */
    virtual Collator &setMaxVariable(UColReorderCode group, UErrorCode &errorCode);

    /**
     * Returns the maximum reordering group whose characters are affected by UCOL_ALTERNATE_HANDLING.
     *
     * The base class implementation returns UCOL_REORDER_CODE_PUNCTUATION.
     * @return the maximum variable reordering group.
     * @see setMaxVariable
     * @stable ICU 53
     */
    virtual UColReorderCode getMaxVariable() const;

#ifndef U_FORCE_HIDE_DEPRECATED_API
    /**
     * Sets the variable top to the primary weight of the specified string.
     *
     * Beginning with ICU 53, the variable top is pinned to
     * the top of one of the supported reordering groups,
     * and it must not be beyond the last of those groups.
     * See setMaxVariable().
     * @param varTop one or more (if contraction) char16_ts to which the variable top should be set
     * @param len length of variable top string. If -1 it is considered to be zero terminated.
     * @param status error code. If error code is set, the return value is undefined. Errors set by this function are: <br>
     *    U_CE_NOT_FOUND_ERROR if more than one character was passed and there is no such contraction<br>
     *    U_ILLEGAL_ARGUMENT_ERROR if the variable top is beyond
     *    the last reordering group supported by setMaxVariable()
     * @return variable top primary weight
     * @deprecated ICU 53 Call setMaxVariable() instead.
     */
    virtual uint32_t setVariableTop(const char16_t *varTop, int32_t len, UErrorCode &status) = 0;

    /**
     * Sets the variable top to the primary weight of the specified string.
     *
     * Beginning with ICU 53, the variable top is pinned to
     * the top of one of the supported reordering groups,
     * and it must not be beyond the last of those groups.
     * See setMaxVariable().
     * @param varTop a UnicodeString size 1 or more (if contraction) of char16_ts to which the variable top should be set
     * @param status error code. If error code is set, the return value is undefined. Errors set by this function are: <br>
     *    U_CE_NOT_FOUND_ERROR if more than one character was passed and there is no such contraction<br>
     *    U_ILLEGAL_ARGUMENT_ERROR if the variable top is beyond
     *    the last reordering group supported by setMaxVariable()
     * @return variable top primary weight
     * @deprecated ICU 53 Call setMaxVariable() instead.
     */
    virtual uint32_t setVariableTop(const UnicodeString &varTop, UErrorCode &status) = 0;

    /**
     * Sets the variable top to the specified primary weight.
     *
     * Beginning with ICU 53, the variable top is pinned to
     * the top of one of the supported reordering groups,
     * and it must not be beyond the last of those groups.
     * See setMaxVariable().
     * @param varTop primary weight, as returned by setVariableTop or ucol_getVariableTop
     * @param status error code
     * @deprecated ICU 53 Call setMaxVariable() instead.
     */
    virtual void setVariableTop(uint32_t varTop, UErrorCode &status) = 0;
#endif  // U_FORCE_HIDE_DEPRECATED_API

    /**
     * Gets the variable top value of a Collator.
     * @param status error code (not changed by function). If error code is set, the return value is undefined.
     * @return the variable top primary weight
     * @see getMaxVariable
     * @stable ICU 2.0
     */
    virtual uint32_t getVariableTop(UErrorCode &status) const = 0;

    /**
     * Get a UnicodeSet that contains all the characters and sequences
     * tailored in this collator.
     * @param status      error code of the operation
     * @return a pointer to a UnicodeSet object containing all the
     *         code points and sequences that may sort differently than
     *         in the root collator. The object must be disposed of by using delete
     * @stable ICU 2.4
     */
    virtual UnicodeSet *getTailoredSet(UErrorCode &status) const;

#ifndef U_FORCE_HIDE_DEPRECATED_API
    /**
     * Same as clone().
     * The base class implementation simply calls clone().
     * @return a copy of this object, owned by the caller
     * @see clone()
     * @deprecated ICU 50 no need to have two methods for cloning
     */
    virtual Collator* safeClone() const;
#endif  // U_FORCE_HIDE_DEPRECATED_API

    /**
     * Get the sort key as an array of bytes from a UnicodeString.
     * Sort key byte arrays are zero-terminated and can be compared using
     * strcmp().
     *
     * Note that sort keys are often less efficient than simply doing comparison.
     * For more details, see the ICU User Guide.
     *
     * @param source string to be processed.
     * @param result buffer to store result in. If NULL, number of bytes needed
     *        will be returned.
     * @param resultLength length of the result buffer. If if not enough the
     *        buffer will be filled to capacity.
     * @return Number of bytes needed for storing the sort key
     * @stable ICU 2.2
     */
    virtual int32_t getSortKey(const UnicodeString& source,
                              uint8_t* result,
                              int32_t resultLength) const = 0;

    /**
     * Get the sort key as an array of bytes from a char16_t buffer.
     * Sort key byte arrays are zero-terminated and can be compared using
     * strcmp().
     *
     * Note that sort keys are often less efficient than simply doing comparison.
     * For more details, see the ICU User Guide.
     *
     * @param source string to be processed.
     * @param sourceLength length of string to be processed.
     *        If -1, the string is 0 terminated and length will be decided by the
     *        function.
     * @param result buffer to store result in. If NULL, number of bytes needed
     *        will be returned.
     * @param resultLength length of the result buffer. If if not enough the
     *        buffer will be filled to capacity.
     * @return Number of bytes needed for storing the sort key
     * @stable ICU 2.2
     */
    virtual int32_t getSortKey(const char16_t*source, int32_t sourceLength,
                               uint8_t*result, int32_t resultLength) const = 0;

    /**
     * Produce a bound for a given sortkey and a number of levels.
     * Return value is always the number of bytes needed, regardless of
     * whether the result buffer was big enough or even valid.<br>
     * Resulting bounds can be used to produce a range of strings that are
     * between upper and lower bounds. For example, if bounds are produced
     * for a sortkey of string "smith", strings between upper and lower
     * bounds with one level would include "Smith", "SMITH", "sMiTh".<br>
     * There are two upper bounds that can be produced. If UCOL_BOUND_UPPER
     * is produced, strings matched would be as above. However, if bound
     * produced using UCOL_BOUND_UPPER_LONG is used, the above example will
     * also match "Smithsonian" and similar.<br>
     * For more on usage, see example in cintltst/capitst.c in procedure
     * TestBounds.
     * Sort keys may be compared using <TT>strcmp</TT>.
     * @param source The source sortkey.
     * @param sourceLength The length of source, or -1 if null-terminated.
     *                     (If an unmodified sortkey is passed, it is always null
     *                      terminated).
     * @param boundType Type of bound required. It can be UCOL_BOUND_LOWER, which
     *                  produces a lower inclusive bound, UCOL_BOUND_UPPER, that
     *                  produces upper bound that matches strings of the same length
     *                  or UCOL_BOUND_UPPER_LONG that matches strings that have the
     *                  same starting substring as the source string.
     * @param noOfLevels  Number of levels required in the resulting bound (for most
     *                    uses, the recommended value is 1). See users guide for
     *                    explanation on number of levels a sortkey can have.
     * @param result A pointer to a buffer to receive the resulting sortkey.
     * @param resultLength The maximum size of result.
     * @param status Used for returning error code if something went wrong. If the
     *               number of levels requested is higher than the number of levels
     *               in the source key, a warning (U_SORT_KEY_TOO_SHORT_WARNING) is
     *               issued.
     * @return The size needed to fully store the bound.
     * @see ucol_keyHashCode
     * @stable ICU 2.1
     */
    static int32_t U_EXPORT2 getBound(const uint8_t       *source,
            int32_t             sourceLength,
            UColBoundMode       boundType,
            uint32_t            noOfLevels,
            uint8_t             *result,
            int32_t             resultLength,
            UErrorCode          &status);


protected:

    // Collator protected constructors -------------------------------------

    /**
    * Default constructor.
    * Constructor is different from the old default Collator constructor.
    * The task for determing the default collation strength and normalization
    * mode is left to the child class.
    * @stable ICU 2.0
    */
    Collator();

#ifndef U_HIDE_DEPRECATED_API
    /**
    * Constructor.
    * Empty constructor, does not handle the arguments.
    * This constructor is done for backward compatibility with 1.7 and 1.8.
    * The task for handling the argument collation strength and normalization
    * mode is left to the child class.
    * @param collationStrength collation strength
    * @param decompositionMode
    * @deprecated ICU 2.4. Subclasses should use the default constructor
    * instead and handle the strength and normalization mode themselves.
    */
    Collator(UCollationStrength collationStrength,
             UNormalizationMode decompositionMode);
#endif  /* U_HIDE_DEPRECATED_API */

    /**
    * Copy constructor.
    * @param other Collator object to be copied from
    * @stable ICU 2.0
    */
    Collator(const Collator& other);

public:
   /**
    * Used internally by registration to define the requested and valid locales.
    * @param requestedLocale the requested locale
    * @param validLocale the valid locale
    * @param actualLocale the actual locale
    * @internal
    */
    virtual void setLocales(const Locale& requestedLocale, const Locale& validLocale, const Locale& actualLocale);

    /** Get the short definition string for a collator. This internal API harvests the collator's
     *  locale and the attribute set and produces a string that can be used for opening
     *  a collator with the same attributes using the ucol_openFromShortString API.
     *  This string will be normalized.
     *  The structure and the syntax of the string is defined in the "Naming collators"
     *  section of the users guide:
     *  http://userguide.icu-project.org/collation/concepts#TOC-Collator-naming-scheme
     *  This function supports preflighting.
     *
     *  This is internal, and intended to be used with delegate converters.
     *
     *  @param locale a locale that will appear as a collators locale in the resulting
     *                short string definition. If NULL, the locale will be harvested
     *                from the collator.
     *  @param buffer space to hold the resulting string
     *  @param capacity capacity of the buffer
     *  @param status for returning errors. All the preflighting errors are featured
     *  @return length of the resulting string
     *  @see ucol_openFromShortString
     *  @see ucol_normalizeShortDefinitionString
     *  @see ucol_getShortDefinitionString
     *  @internal
     */
    virtual int32_t internalGetShortDefinitionString(const char *locale,
                                                     char *buffer,
                                                     int32_t capacity,
                                                     UErrorCode &status) const;

    /**
     * Implements ucol_strcollUTF8().
     * @internal
     */
    virtual UCollationResult internalCompareUTF8(
            const char *left, int32_t leftLength,
            const char *right, int32_t rightLength,
            UErrorCode &errorCode) const;

    /**
     * Implements ucol_nextSortKeyPart().
     * @internal
     */
    virtual int32_t
    internalNextSortKeyPart(
            UCharIterator *iter, uint32_t state[2],
            uint8_t *dest, int32_t count, UErrorCode &errorCode) const;

#ifndef U_HIDE_INTERNAL_API
    /** @internal */
    static inline Collator *fromUCollator(UCollator *uc) {
        return reinterpret_cast<Collator *>(uc);
    }
    /** @internal */
    static inline const Collator *fromUCollator(const UCollator *uc) {
        return reinterpret_cast<const Collator *>(uc);
    }
    /** @internal */
    inline UCollator *toUCollator() {
        return reinterpret_cast<UCollator *>(this);
    }
    /** @internal */
    inline const UCollator *toUCollator() const {
        return reinterpret_cast<const UCollator *>(this);
    }
#endif  // U_HIDE_INTERNAL_API

private:
    /**
     * Assignment operator. Private for now.
     */
    Collator& operator=(const Collator& other);

    friend class CFactory;
    friend class SimpleCFactory;
    friend class ICUCollatorFactory;
    friend class ICUCollatorService;
    static Collator* makeInstance(const Locale& desiredLocale,
                                  UErrorCode& status);
};

#if !UCONFIG_NO_SERVICE
/**
 * A factory, used with registerFactory, the creates multiple collators and provides
 * display names for them.  A factory supports some number of locales-- these are the
 * locales for which it can create collators.  The factory can be visible, in which
 * case the supported locales will be enumerated by getAvailableLocales, or invisible,
 * in which they are not.  Invisible locales are still supported, they are just not
 * listed by getAvailableLocales.
 * <p>
 * If standard locale display names are sufficient, Collator instances can
 * be registered using registerInstance instead.</p>
 * <p>
 * Note: if the collators are to be used from C APIs, they must be instances
 * of RuleBasedCollator.</p>
 *
 * @stable ICU 2.6
 */
class U_I18N_API CollatorFactory : public UObject {
public:

    /**
     * Destructor
     * @stable ICU 3.0
     */
    virtual ~CollatorFactory();

    /**
     * Return true if this factory is visible.  Default is true.
     * If not visible, the locales supported by this factory will not
     * be listed by getAvailableLocales.
     * @return true if the factory is visible.
     * @stable ICU 2.6
     */
    virtual UBool visible(void) const;

    /**
     * Return a collator for the provided locale.  If the locale
     * is not supported, return NULL.
     * @param loc the locale identifying the collator to be created.
     * @return a new collator if the locale is supported, otherwise NULL.
     * @stable ICU 2.6
     */
    virtual Collator* createCollator(const Locale& loc) = 0;

    /**
     * Return the name of the collator for the objectLocale, localized for the displayLocale.
     * If objectLocale is not supported, or the factory is not visible, set the result string
     * to bogus.
     * @param objectLocale the locale identifying the collator
     * @param displayLocale the locale for which the display name of the collator should be localized
     * @param result an output parameter for the display name, set to bogus if not supported.
     * @return the display name
     * @stable ICU 2.6
     */
    virtual  UnicodeString& getDisplayName(const Locale& objectLocale,
                                           const Locale& displayLocale,
                                           UnicodeString& result);

    /**
     * Return an array of all the locale names directly supported by this factory.
     * The number of names is returned in count.  This array is owned by the factory.
     * Its contents must never change.
     * @param count output parameter for the number of locales supported by the factory
     * @param status the in/out error code
     * @return a pointer to an array of count UnicodeStrings.
     * @stable ICU 2.6
     */
    virtual const UnicodeString * getSupportedIDs(int32_t &count, UErrorCode& status) = 0;
};
#endif /* UCONFIG_NO_SERVICE */

// Collator inline methods -----------------------------------------------

U_NAMESPACE_END

#endif /* #if !UCONFIG_NO_COLLATION */

#endif /* U_SHOW_CPLUSPLUS_API */

#endif