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/// Scoped thread.
///
/// # Examples
///
/// A basic scoped thread:
///
/// ```
/// crossbeam_utils::scoped::scope(|scope| {
///     scope.spawn(|| {
///         println!("Hello from a scoped thread!");
///     });
/// });
/// ```
///
/// When writing concurrent Rust programs, you'll sometimes see a pattern like this, using
/// [`std::thread::spawn`][spawn]:
///
/// ```ignore
/// let array = [1, 2, 3];
/// let mut guards = vec![];
///
/// for i in &array {
///     let guard = std::thread::spawn(move || {
///         println!("element: {}", i);
///     });
///
///     guards.push(guard);
/// }
///
/// for guard in guards {
///     guard.join().unwrap();
/// }
/// ```
///
/// The basic pattern is:
///
/// 1. Iterate over some collection.
/// 2. Spin up a thread to operate on each part of the collection.
/// 3. Join all the threads.
///
/// However, this code actually gives an error:
///
/// ```text
/// error: `array` does not live long enough
/// for i in &array {
///           ^~~~~
/// in expansion of for loop expansion
/// note: expansion site
/// note: reference must be valid for the static lifetime...
/// note: ...but borrowed value is only valid for the block suffix following statement 0 at ...
///     let array = [1, 2, 3];
///     let mut guards = vec![];
///
///     for i in &array {
///         let guard = std::thread::spawn(move || {
///             println!("element: {}", i);
/// ...
/// error: aborting due to previous error
/// ```
///
/// Because [`std::thread::spawn`][spawn] doesn't know about this scope, it requires a
/// `'static` lifetime. One way of giving it a proper lifetime is to use an [`Arc`][arc]:
///
/// [arc]: http://doc.rust-lang.org/stable/std/sync/struct.Arc.html
///
/// ```
/// use std::sync::Arc;
///
/// let array = Arc::new([1, 2, 3]);
/// let mut guards = vec![];
///
/// for i in 0..array.len() {
///     let a = array.clone();
///
///     let guard = std::thread::spawn(move || {
///         println!("element: {}", a[i]);
///     });
///
///     guards.push(guard);
/// }
///
/// for guard in guards {
///     guard.join().unwrap();
/// }
/// ```
///
/// But this introduces unnecessary allocation, as `Arc<T>` puts its data on the heap, and we
/// also end up dealing with reference counts. We know that we're joining the threads before
/// our function returns, so just taking a reference _should_ be safe. Rust can't know that,
/// though.
///
/// Enter scoped threads. Here's our original example, using `spawn` from crossbeam rather
/// than from `std::thread`:
///
/// ```
/// let array = [1, 2, 3];
///
/// crossbeam_utils::scoped::scope(|scope| {
///     for i in &array {
///         scope.spawn(move || {
///             println!("element: {}", i);
///         });
///     }
/// });
/// ```
///
/// Much more straightforward.
// FIXME(jeehoonkang): maybe we should create a new crate for scoped threads.

use std::cell::RefCell;
use std::fmt;
use std::mem;
use std::rc::Rc;
use std::sync::atomic::Ordering;
use std::sync::Arc;
use std::thread;
use std::io;

use atomic_option::AtomicOption;

#[doc(hidden)]
trait FnBox {
    fn call_box(self: Box<Self>);
}

impl<F: FnOnce()> FnBox for F {
    fn call_box(self: Box<Self>) {
        (*self)()
    }
}

/// Like `std::thread::spawn`, but without the closure bounds.
pub unsafe fn spawn_unsafe<'a, F>(f: F) -> thread::JoinHandle<()>
where
    F: FnOnce() + Send + 'a,
{
    let builder = thread::Builder::new();
    builder_spawn_unsafe(builder, f).unwrap()
}

/// Like `std::thread::Builder::spawn`, but without the closure bounds.
pub unsafe fn builder_spawn_unsafe<'a, F>(
    builder: thread::Builder,
    f: F,
) -> io::Result<thread::JoinHandle<()>>
where
    F: FnOnce() + Send + 'a,
{
    use std::mem;

    let closure: Box<FnBox + 'a> = Box::new(f);
    let closure: Box<FnBox + Send> = mem::transmute(closure);
    builder.spawn(move || closure.call_box())
}


pub struct Scope<'a> {
    dtors: RefCell<Option<DtorChain<'a>>>,
}

struct DtorChain<'a> {
    dtor: Box<FnBox + 'a>,
    next: Option<Box<DtorChain<'a>>>,
}

enum JoinState {
    Running(thread::JoinHandle<()>),
    Joined,
}

impl JoinState {
    fn join(&mut self) {
        let mut state = JoinState::Joined;
        mem::swap(self, &mut state);
        if let JoinState::Running(handle) = state {
            let res = handle.join();

            if !thread::panicking() {
                res.unwrap();
            }
        }
    }
}

/// A handle to a scoped thread
pub struct ScopedJoinHandle<T> {
    inner: Rc<RefCell<JoinState>>,
    packet: Arc<AtomicOption<T>>,
    thread: thread::Thread,
}

/// Create a new `scope`, for deferred destructors.
///
/// Scopes, in particular, support [*scoped thread spawning*](struct.Scope.html#method.spawn).
///
/// # Examples
///
/// Creating and using a scope:
///
/// ```
/// crossbeam_utils::scoped::scope(|scope| {
///     scope.defer(|| println!("Exiting scope"));
///     scope.spawn(|| println!("Running child thread in scope"))
/// });
/// // Prints messages in the reverse order written
/// ```
pub fn scope<'a, F, R>(f: F) -> R
where
    F: FnOnce(&Scope<'a>) -> R,
{
    let mut scope = Scope { dtors: RefCell::new(None) };
    let ret = f(&scope);
    scope.drop_all();
    ret
}

impl<'a> fmt::Debug for Scope<'a> {
    fn fmt(&self, f: &mut fmt::Formatter) -> fmt::Result {
        write!(f, "Scope {{ ... }}")
    }
}

impl<T> fmt::Debug for ScopedJoinHandle<T> {
    fn fmt(&self, f: &mut fmt::Formatter) -> fmt::Result {
        write!(f, "ScopedJoinHandle {{ ... }}")
    }
}

impl<'a> Scope<'a> {
    // This method is carefully written in a transactional style, so
    // that it can be called directly and, if any dtor panics, can be
    // resumed in the unwinding this causes. By initially running the
    // method outside of any destructor, we avoid any leakage problems
    // due to @rust-lang/rust#14875.
    fn drop_all(&mut self) {
        loop {
            // use a separate scope to ensure that the RefCell borrow
            // is relinquished before running `dtor`
            let dtor = {
                let mut dtors = self.dtors.borrow_mut();
                if let Some(mut node) = dtors.take() {
                    *dtors = node.next.take().map(|b| *b);
                    node.dtor
                } else {
                    return;
                }
            };
            dtor.call_box()
        }
    }

    /// Schedule code to be executed when exiting the scope.
    ///
    /// This is akin to having a destructor on the stack, except that it is
    /// *guaranteed* to be run.
    pub fn defer<F>(&self, f: F)
    where
        F: FnOnce() + 'a,
    {
        let mut dtors = self.dtors.borrow_mut();
        *dtors = Some(DtorChain {
            dtor: Box::new(f),
            next: dtors.take().map(Box::new),
        });
    }

    /// Create a scoped thread.
    ///
    /// `spawn` is similar to the [`spawn`][spawn] function in Rust's standard library. The
    /// difference is that this thread is scoped, meaning that it's guaranteed to terminate
    /// before the current stack frame goes away, allowing you to reference the parent stack frame
    /// directly. This is ensured by having the parent thread join on the child thread before the
    /// scope exits.
    ///
    /// [spawn]: http://doc.rust-lang.org/std/thread/fn.spawn.html
    pub fn spawn<F, T>(&self, f: F) -> ScopedJoinHandle<T>
    where
        F: FnOnce() -> T + Send + 'a,
        T: Send + 'a,
    {
        self.builder().spawn(f).unwrap()
    }

    /// Generates the base configuration for spawning a scoped thread, from which configuration
    /// methods can be chained.
    pub fn builder<'s>(&'s self) -> ScopedThreadBuilder<'s, 'a> {
        ScopedThreadBuilder {
            scope: self,
            builder: thread::Builder::new(),
        }
    }
}

/// Scoped thread configuration. Provides detailed control over the properties and behavior of new
/// scoped threads.
pub struct ScopedThreadBuilder<'s, 'a: 's> {
    scope: &'s Scope<'a>,
    builder: thread::Builder,
}

impl<'s, 'a: 's> ScopedThreadBuilder<'s, 'a> {
    /// Names the thread-to-be. Currently the name is used for identification only in panic
    /// messages.
    pub fn name(mut self, name: String) -> ScopedThreadBuilder<'s, 'a> {
        self.builder = self.builder.name(name);
        self
    }

    /// Sets the size of the stack for the new thread.
    pub fn stack_size(mut self, size: usize) -> ScopedThreadBuilder<'s, 'a> {
        self.builder = self.builder.stack_size(size);
        self
    }

    /// Spawns a new thread, and returns a join handle for it.
    pub fn spawn<F, T>(self, f: F) -> io::Result<ScopedJoinHandle<T>>
    where
        F: FnOnce() -> T + Send + 'a,
        T: Send + 'a,
    {
        let their_packet = Arc::new(AtomicOption::new());
        let my_packet = their_packet.clone();

        let join_handle = try!(unsafe {
            builder_spawn_unsafe(self.builder, move || {
                their_packet.swap(f(), Ordering::Relaxed);
            })
        });

        let thread = join_handle.thread().clone();
        let deferred_handle = Rc::new(RefCell::new(JoinState::Running(join_handle)));
        let my_handle = deferred_handle.clone();

        self.scope.defer(move || {
            let mut state = deferred_handle.borrow_mut();
            state.join();
        });

        Ok(ScopedJoinHandle {
            inner: my_handle,
            packet: my_packet,
            thread: thread,
        })
    }
}

impl<T> ScopedJoinHandle<T> {
    /// Join the scoped thread, returning the result it produced.
    pub fn join(self) -> T {
        self.inner.borrow_mut().join();
        self.packet.take(Ordering::Relaxed).unwrap()
    }

    /// Get the underlying thread handle.
    pub fn thread(&self) -> &thread::Thread {
        &self.thread
    }
}

impl<'a> Drop for Scope<'a> {
    fn drop(&mut self) {
        self.drop_all()
    }
}