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/* -*- Mode: C++; tab-width: 8; indent-tabs-mode: nil; c-basic-offset: 2 -*-
 * vim: set ts=8 sts=2 et sw=2 tw=80:
 * This Source Code Form is subject to the terms of the Mozilla Public
 * License, v. 2.0. If a copy of the MPL was not distributed with this
 * file, You can obtain one at http://mozilla.org/MPL/2.0/. */

#ifndef vm_SharedImmutableStringsCache_h
#define vm_SharedImmutableStringsCache_h

#include "mozilla/Maybe.h"
#include "mozilla/UniquePtr.h"

#include <cstring>
#include <new>      // for placement new
#include <utility>  // std::move

#include "js/AllocPolicy.h"
#include "js/HashTable.h"
#include "js/UniquePtr.h"
#include "js/Utility.h"

#include "threading/ExclusiveData.h"

#include "vm/MutexIDs.h"

namespace js {

class SharedImmutableString;
class SharedImmutableTwoByteString;

/**
 * The `SharedImmutableStringsCache` allows safely sharing and deduplicating
 * immutable strings (either `const char*` [any encoding, not restricted to
 * only Latin-1 or only UTF-8] or `const char16_t*`) between threads.
 *
 * The locking mechanism is dead-simple and coarse grained: a single lock guards
 * all of the internal table itself, the table's entries, and the entries'
 * reference counts. It is only safe to perform any mutation on the cache or any
 * data stored within the cache when this lock is acquired.
 */
class SharedImmutableStringsCache {
  friend class SharedImmutableString;
  friend class SharedImmutableTwoByteString;
  struct Hasher;

 public:
  using OwnedChars = JS::UniqueChars;
  using OwnedTwoByteChars = JS::UniqueTwoByteChars;

  /**
   * Get the canonical, shared, and de-duplicated version of the given `const
   * char*` string. If such a string does not exist, call `intoOwnedChars` and
   * add the string it returns to the cache.
   *
   * `intoOwnedChars` must create an owned version of the given string, and
   * must have one of the following types:
   *
   *     JS::UniqueChars   intoOwnedChars();
   *     JS::UniqueChars&& intoOwnedChars();
   *
   * It can be used by callers to elide a copy of the string when it is safe
   * to give up ownership of the lookup string to the cache. It must return a
   * `nullptr` on failure.
   *
   * On success, `Some` is returned. In the case of OOM failure, `Nothing` is
   * returned.
   */
  template <typename IntoOwnedChars>
  MOZ_MUST_USE mozilla::Maybe<SharedImmutableString> getOrCreate(
      const char* chars, size_t length, IntoOwnedChars intoOwnedChars);

  /**
   * Take ownership of the given `chars` and return the canonical, shared and
   * de-duplicated version.
   *
   * On success, `Some` is returned. In the case of OOM failure, `Nothing` is
   * returned.
   */
  MOZ_MUST_USE mozilla::Maybe<SharedImmutableString> getOrCreate(
      OwnedChars&& chars, size_t length);

  /**
   * Do not take ownership of the given `chars`. Return the canonical, shared
   * and de-duplicated version. If there is no extant shared version of
   * `chars`, make a copy and insert it into the cache.
   *
   * On success, `Some` is returned. In the case of OOM failure, `Nothing` is
   * returned.
   */
  MOZ_MUST_USE mozilla::Maybe<SharedImmutableString> getOrCreate(
      const char* chars, size_t length);

  /**
   * Get the canonical, shared, and de-duplicated version of the given `const
   * char16_t*` string. If such a string does not exist, call `intoOwnedChars`
   * and add the string it returns to the cache.
   *
   * `intoOwnedTwoByteChars` must create an owned version of the given string,
   * and must have one of the following types:
   *
   *     JS::UniqueTwoByteChars   intoOwnedTwoByteChars();
   *     JS::UniqueTwoByteChars&& intoOwnedTwoByteChars();
   *
   * It can be used by callers to elide a copy of the string when it is safe
   * to give up ownership of the lookup string to the cache. It must return a
   * `nullptr` on failure.
   *
   * On success, `Some` is returned. In the case of OOM failure, `Nothing` is
   * returned.
   */
  template <typename IntoOwnedTwoByteChars>
  MOZ_MUST_USE mozilla::Maybe<SharedImmutableTwoByteString> getOrCreate(
      const char16_t* chars, size_t length,
      IntoOwnedTwoByteChars intoOwnedTwoByteChars);

  /**
   * Take ownership of the given `chars` and return the canonical, shared and
   * de-duplicated version.
   *
   * On success, `Some` is returned. In the case of OOM failure, `Nothing` is
   * returned.
   */
  MOZ_MUST_USE mozilla::Maybe<SharedImmutableTwoByteString> getOrCreate(
      OwnedTwoByteChars&& chars, size_t length);

  /**
   * Do not take ownership of the given `chars`. Return the canonical, shared
   * and de-duplicated version. If there is no extant shared version of
   * `chars`, then make a copy and insert it into the cache.
   *
   * On success, `Some` is returned. In the case of OOM failure, `Nothing` is
   * returned.
   */
  MOZ_MUST_USE mozilla::Maybe<SharedImmutableTwoByteString> getOrCreate(
      const char16_t* chars, size_t length);

  size_t sizeOfExcludingThis(mozilla::MallocSizeOf mallocSizeOf) const {
    MOZ_ASSERT(inner_);
    size_t n = mallocSizeOf(inner_);

    auto locked = inner_->lock();

    // Size of the table.
    n += locked->set.shallowSizeOfExcludingThis(mallocSizeOf);

    // Sizes of the strings and their boxes.
    for (auto r = locked->set.all(); !r.empty(); r.popFront()) {
      n += mallocSizeOf(r.front().get());
      if (const char* chars = r.front()->chars()) {
        n += mallocSizeOf(chars);
      }
    }

    return n;
  }

  /**
   * Construct a new cache of shared, immutable strings. Returns
   * `mozilla::Nothing` on out of memory failure.
   */
  static mozilla::Maybe<SharedImmutableStringsCache> Create() {
    auto inner =
        js_new<ExclusiveData<Inner>>(mutexid::SharedImmutableStringsCache);
    if (!inner) {
      return mozilla::Nothing();
    }

    auto locked = inner->lock();
    return mozilla::Some(SharedImmutableStringsCache(locked));
  }

  SharedImmutableStringsCache(SharedImmutableStringsCache&& rhs)
      : inner_(rhs.inner_) {
    MOZ_ASSERT(inner_);
    rhs.inner_ = nullptr;
  }

  SharedImmutableStringsCache& operator=(SharedImmutableStringsCache&& rhs) {
    MOZ_ASSERT(this != &rhs, "self move not allowed");
    new (this) SharedImmutableStringsCache(std::move(rhs));
    return *this;
  }

  SharedImmutableStringsCache& operator=(const SharedImmutableStringsCache&) =
      delete;

  SharedImmutableStringsCache clone() {
    MOZ_ASSERT(inner_);
    auto locked = inner_->lock();
    return SharedImmutableStringsCache(locked);
  }

  ~SharedImmutableStringsCache() {
    if (!inner_) {
      return;
    }

    bool shouldDestroy = false;
    {
      // ~ExclusiveData takes the lock, so be sure to drop the lock before
      // attempting to destroy the inner.
      auto locked = inner_->lock();
      MOZ_ASSERT(locked->refcount > 0);
      locked->refcount--;
      if (locked->refcount == 0) {
        shouldDestroy = true;
      }
    }
    if (shouldDestroy) {
      js_delete(inner_);
    }
  }

  /**
   * Purge the cache of all refcount == 0 entries.
   */
  void purge() {
    auto locked = inner_->lock();
    MOZ_ASSERT(locked->refcount > 0);

    for (Inner::Set::Enum e(locked->set); !e.empty(); e.popFront()) {
      if (e.front()->refcount == 0) {
        // The chars should be eagerly freed when refcount reaches zero.
        MOZ_ASSERT(!e.front()->chars());
        e.removeFront();
      } else {
        // The chars should exist as long as the refcount is non-zero.
        MOZ_ASSERT(e.front()->chars());
      }
    }
  }

 private:
  class StringBox {
    friend class SharedImmutableString;

    OwnedChars chars_;
    size_t length_;

   public:
    mutable size_t refcount;

    using Ptr = js::UniquePtr<StringBox>;

    StringBox(OwnedChars&& chars, size_t length)
        : chars_(std::move(chars)), length_(length), refcount(0) {
      MOZ_ASSERT(chars_);
    }

    static Ptr Create(OwnedChars&& chars, size_t length) {
      return js::MakeUnique<StringBox>(std::move(chars), length);
    }

    StringBox(const StringBox&) = delete;
    StringBox& operator=(const StringBox&) = delete;

    ~StringBox() {
      MOZ_RELEASE_ASSERT(
          refcount == 0,
          "There are `SharedImmutable[TwoByte]String`s outliving their "
          "associated cache! This always leads to use-after-free in the "
          "`~SharedImmutableString` destructor!");
    }

    const char* chars() const { return chars_.get(); }
    size_t length() const { return length_; }
  };

  struct Hasher {
    /**
     * A structure used when querying for a `const char*` string in the cache.
     */
    class Lookup {
      friend struct Hasher;

      HashNumber hash_;
      const char* chars_;
      size_t length_;

     public:
      Lookup(HashNumber hash, const char* chars, size_t length)
          : hash_(hash), chars_(chars), length_(length) {
        MOZ_ASSERT(chars_);
        MOZ_ASSERT(hash == Hasher::hashLongString(chars, length));
      }

      Lookup(HashNumber hash, const char16_t* chars, size_t length)
          : Lookup(hash, reinterpret_cast<const char*>(chars),
                   length * sizeof(char16_t)) {}
    };

    static const size_t SHORT_STRING_MAX_LENGTH = 8192;
    static const size_t HASH_CHUNK_LENGTH = SHORT_STRING_MAX_LENGTH / 2;

    // For strings longer than SHORT_STRING_MAX_LENGTH, we only hash the
    // first HASH_CHUNK_LENGTH and last HASH_CHUNK_LENGTH characters in the
    // string. This increases the risk of collisions, but in practice it
    // should be rare, and it yields a large speedup for hashing long
    // strings.
    static HashNumber hashLongString(const char* chars, size_t length) {
      MOZ_ASSERT(chars);
      return length <= SHORT_STRING_MAX_LENGTH
                 ? mozilla::HashString(chars, length)
                 : mozilla::AddToHash(
                       mozilla::HashString(chars, HASH_CHUNK_LENGTH),
                       mozilla::HashString(chars + length - HASH_CHUNK_LENGTH,
                                           HASH_CHUNK_LENGTH));
    }

    static HashNumber hash(const Lookup& lookup) { return lookup.hash_; }

    static bool match(const StringBox::Ptr& key, const Lookup& lookup) {
      MOZ_ASSERT(lookup.chars_);

      if (!key->chars() || key->length() != lookup.length_) {
        return false;
      }

      if (key->chars() == lookup.chars_) {
        return true;
      }

      return memcmp(key->chars(), lookup.chars_, key->length()) == 0;
    }
  };

  // The `Inner` struct contains the actual cached contents, and is reference
  // counted and shared between all `SharedImmutableStringsCache` and
  // `SharedImmutable[TwoByte]String` holders.
  struct Inner {
    using Set = HashSet<StringBox::Ptr, Hasher, SystemAllocPolicy>;

    size_t refcount;
    Set set;

    Inner() : refcount(0), set() {}

    Inner(const Inner&) = delete;
    Inner& operator=(const Inner&) = delete;

    ~Inner() { MOZ_ASSERT(refcount == 0); }
  };

  const ExclusiveData<Inner>* inner_;

  explicit SharedImmutableStringsCache(ExclusiveData<Inner>::Guard& locked)
      : inner_(locked.parent()) {
    locked->refcount++;
  }
};

/**
 * The `SharedImmutableString` class holds a reference to a `const char*` string
 * from the `SharedImmutableStringsCache` and releases the reference upon
 * destruction.
 */
class SharedImmutableString {
  friend class SharedImmutableStringsCache;
  friend class SharedImmutableTwoByteString;

  mutable SharedImmutableStringsCache cache_;
  mutable SharedImmutableStringsCache::StringBox* box_;

  SharedImmutableString(
      ExclusiveData<SharedImmutableStringsCache::Inner>::Guard& locked,
      SharedImmutableStringsCache::StringBox* box);

 public:
  /**
   * `SharedImmutableString`s are move-able. It is an error to use a
   * `SharedImmutableString` after it has been moved.
   */
  SharedImmutableString(SharedImmutableString&& rhs);
  SharedImmutableString& operator=(SharedImmutableString&& rhs);

  /**
   * Create another shared reference to the underlying string.
   */
  SharedImmutableString clone() const;

  // If you want a copy, take one explicitly with `clone`!
  SharedImmutableString& operator=(const SharedImmutableString&) = delete;

  ~SharedImmutableString();

  /**
   * Get a raw pointer to the underlying string. It is only safe to use the
   * resulting pointer while this `SharedImmutableString` exists.
   */
  const char* chars() const {
    MOZ_ASSERT(box_);
    MOZ_ASSERT(box_->refcount > 0);
    MOZ_ASSERT(box_->chars());
    return box_->chars();
  }

  /**
   * Get the length of the underlying string.
   */
  size_t length() const {
    MOZ_ASSERT(box_);
    MOZ_ASSERT(box_->refcount > 0);
    MOZ_ASSERT(box_->chars());
    return box_->length();
  }
};

/**
 * The `SharedImmutableTwoByteString` class holds a reference to a `const
 * char16_t*` string from the `SharedImmutableStringsCache` and releases the
 * reference upon destruction.
 */
class SharedImmutableTwoByteString {
  friend class SharedImmutableStringsCache;

  // If a `char*` string and `char16_t*` string happen to have the same bytes,
  // the bytes will be shared but handed out as different types.
  SharedImmutableString string_;

  explicit SharedImmutableTwoByteString(SharedImmutableString&& string);
  SharedImmutableTwoByteString(
      ExclusiveData<SharedImmutableStringsCache::Inner>::Guard& locked,
      SharedImmutableStringsCache::StringBox* box);

 public:
  /**
   * `SharedImmutableTwoByteString`s are move-able. It is an error to use a
   * `SharedImmutableTwoByteString` after it has been moved.
   */
  SharedImmutableTwoByteString(SharedImmutableTwoByteString&& rhs);
  SharedImmutableTwoByteString& operator=(SharedImmutableTwoByteString&& rhs);

  /**
   * Create another shared reference to the underlying string.
   */
  SharedImmutableTwoByteString clone() const;

  // If you want a copy, take one explicitly with `clone`!
  SharedImmutableTwoByteString& operator=(const SharedImmutableTwoByteString&) =
      delete;

  /**
   * Get a raw pointer to the underlying string. It is only safe to use the
   * resulting pointer while this `SharedImmutableTwoByteString` exists.
   */
  const char16_t* chars() const {
    return reinterpret_cast<const char16_t*>(string_.chars());
  }

  /**
   * Get the length of the underlying string.
   */
  size_t length() const { return string_.length() / sizeof(char16_t); }
};

}  // namespace js

#endif  // vm_SharedImmutableStringsCache_h