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'\" t
.\"     Title: PK12UTIL
.\"    Author: [see the "Authors" section]
.\" Generator: DocBook XSL Stylesheets v1.78.1 <http://docbook.sf.net/>
.\"      Date:  5 June 2014
.\"    Manual: NSS Security Tools
.\"    Source: nss-tools
.\"  Language: English
.\"
.TH "PK12UTIL" "1" "5 June 2014" "nss-tools" "NSS Security Tools"
.\" -----------------------------------------------------------------
.\" * Define some portability stuff
.\" -----------------------------------------------------------------
.\" ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
.\" http://bugs.debian.org/507673
.\" http://lists.gnu.org/archive/html/groff/2009-02/msg00013.html
.\" ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
.ie \n(.g .ds Aq \(aq
.el       .ds Aq '
.\" -----------------------------------------------------------------
.\" * set default formatting
.\" -----------------------------------------------------------------
.\" disable hyphenation
.nh
.\" disable justification (adjust text to left margin only)
.ad l
.\" -----------------------------------------------------------------
.\" * MAIN CONTENT STARTS HERE *
.\" -----------------------------------------------------------------
.SH "NAME"
pk12util \- Export and import keys and certificate to or from a PKCS #12 file and the NSS database
.SH "SYNOPSIS"
.HP \w'\fBpk12util\fR\ 'u
\fBpk12util\fR [\-i\ p12File|\-l\ p12File|\-o\ p12File] [\-d\ [sql:]directory] [\-h\ tokenname] [\-P\ dbprefix] [\-r] [\-v] [\-k\ slotPasswordFile|\-K\ slotPassword] [\-w\ p12filePasswordFile|\-W\ p12filePassword]
.SH "STATUS"
.PP
This documentation is still work in progress\&. Please contribute to the initial review in
\m[blue]\fBMozilla NSS bug 836477\fR\m[]\&\s-2\u[1]\d\s+2
.SH "DESCRIPTION"
.PP
The PKCS #12 utility,
\fBpk12util\fR, enables sharing certificates among any server that supports PKCS#12\&. The tool can import certificates and keys from PKCS#12 files into security databases, export certificates, and list certificates and keys\&.
.SH "OPTIONS AND ARGUMENTS"
.PP
\fBOptions\fR
.PP
\-i p12file
.RS 4
Import keys and certificates from a PKCS#12 file into a security database\&.
.RE
.PP
\-l p12file
.RS 4
List the keys and certificates in PKCS#12 file\&.
.RE
.PP
\-o p12file
.RS 4
Export keys and certificates from the security database to a PKCS#12 file\&.
.RE
.PP
\fBArguments\fR
.PP
\-c keyCipher
.RS 4
Specify the key encryption algorithm\&.
.RE
.PP
\-C certCipher
.RS 4
Specify the key cert (overall package) encryption algorithm\&.
.RE
.PP
\-d [sql:]directory
.RS 4
Specify the database directory into which to import to or export from certificates and keys\&.
.sp
\fBpk12util\fR
supports two types of databases: the legacy security databases (cert8\&.db,
key3\&.db, and
secmod\&.db) and new SQLite databases (cert9\&.db,
key4\&.db, and
pkcs11\&.txt)\&. If the prefix
\fBsql:\fR
is not used, then the tool assumes that the given databases are in the old format\&.
.RE
.PP
\-h tokenname
.RS 4
Specify the name of the token to import into or export from\&.
.RE
.PP
\-k slotPasswordFile
.RS 4
Specify the text file containing the slot\*(Aqs password\&.
.RE
.PP
\-K slotPassword
.RS 4
Specify the slot\*(Aqs password\&.
.RE
.PP
\-m | \-\-key\-len keyLength
.RS 4
Specify the desired length of the symmetric key to be used to encrypt the private key\&.
.RE
.PP
\-n | \-\-cert\-key\-len certKeyLength
.RS 4
Specify the desired length of the symmetric key to be used to encrypt the certificates and other meta\-data\&.
.RE
.PP
\-n certname
.RS 4
Specify the nickname of the cert and private key to export\&.
.RE
.PP
\-P prefix
.RS 4
Specify the prefix used on the certificate and key databases\&. This option is provided as a special case\&. Changing the names of the certificate and key databases is not recommended\&.
.RE
.PP
\-r
.RS 4
Dumps all of the data in raw (binary) form\&. This must be saved as a DER file\&. The default is to return information in a pretty\-print ASCII format, which displays the information about the certificates and public keys in the p12 file\&.
.RE
.PP
\-v
.RS 4
Enable debug logging when importing\&.
.RE
.PP
\-w p12filePasswordFile
.RS 4
Specify the text file containing the pkcs #12 file password\&.
.RE
.PP
\-W p12filePassword
.RS 4
Specify the pkcs #12 file password\&.
.RE
.SH "RETURN CODES"
.sp
.RS 4
.ie n \{\
\h'-04'\(bu\h'+03'\c
.\}
.el \{\
.sp -1
.IP \(bu 2.3
.\}
0 \- No error
.RE
.sp
.RS 4
.ie n \{\
\h'-04'\(bu\h'+03'\c
.\}
.el \{\
.sp -1
.IP \(bu 2.3
.\}
1 \- User Cancelled
.RE
.sp
.RS 4
.ie n \{\
\h'-04'\(bu\h'+03'\c
.\}
.el \{\
.sp -1
.IP \(bu 2.3
.\}
2 \- Usage error
.RE
.sp
.RS 4
.ie n \{\
\h'-04'\(bu\h'+03'\c
.\}
.el \{\
.sp -1
.IP \(bu 2.3
.\}
6 \- NLS init error
.RE
.sp
.RS 4
.ie n \{\
\h'-04'\(bu\h'+03'\c
.\}
.el \{\
.sp -1
.IP \(bu 2.3
.\}
8 \- Certificate DB open error
.RE
.sp
.RS 4
.ie n \{\
\h'-04'\(bu\h'+03'\c
.\}
.el \{\
.sp -1
.IP \(bu 2.3
.\}
9 \- Key DB open error
.RE
.sp
.RS 4
.ie n \{\
\h'-04'\(bu\h'+03'\c
.\}
.el \{\
.sp -1
.IP \(bu 2.3
.\}
10 \- File initialization error
.RE
.sp
.RS 4
.ie n \{\
\h'-04'\(bu\h'+03'\c
.\}
.el \{\
.sp -1
.IP \(bu 2.3
.\}
11 \- Unicode conversion error
.RE
.sp
.RS 4
.ie n \{\
\h'-04'\(bu\h'+03'\c
.\}
.el \{\
.sp -1
.IP \(bu 2.3
.\}
12 \- Temporary file creation error
.RE
.sp
.RS 4
.ie n \{\
\h'-04'\(bu\h'+03'\c
.\}
.el \{\
.sp -1
.IP \(bu 2.3
.\}
13 \- PKCS11 get slot error
.RE
.sp
.RS 4
.ie n \{\
\h'-04'\(bu\h'+03'\c
.\}
.el \{\
.sp -1
.IP \(bu 2.3
.\}
14 \- PKCS12 decoder start error
.RE
.sp
.RS 4
.ie n \{\
\h'-04'\(bu\h'+03'\c
.\}
.el \{\
.sp -1
.IP \(bu 2.3
.\}
15 \- error read from import file
.RE
.sp
.RS 4
.ie n \{\
\h'-04'\(bu\h'+03'\c
.\}
.el \{\
.sp -1
.IP \(bu 2.3
.\}
16 \- pkcs12 decode error
.RE
.sp
.RS 4
.ie n \{\
\h'-04'\(bu\h'+03'\c
.\}
.el \{\
.sp -1
.IP \(bu 2.3
.\}
17 \- pkcs12 decoder verify error
.RE
.sp
.RS 4
.ie n \{\
\h'-04'\(bu\h'+03'\c
.\}
.el \{\
.sp -1
.IP \(bu 2.3
.\}
18 \- pkcs12 decoder validate bags error
.RE
.sp
.RS 4
.ie n \{\
\h'-04'\(bu\h'+03'\c
.\}
.el \{\
.sp -1
.IP \(bu 2.3
.\}
19 \- pkcs12 decoder import bags error
.RE
.sp
.RS 4
.ie n \{\
\h'-04'\(bu\h'+03'\c
.\}
.el \{\
.sp -1
.IP \(bu 2.3
.\}
20 \- key db conversion version 3 to version 2 error
.RE
.sp
.RS 4
.ie n \{\
\h'-04'\(bu\h'+03'\c
.\}
.el \{\
.sp -1
.IP \(bu 2.3
.\}
21 \- cert db conversion version 7 to version 5 error
.RE
.sp
.RS 4
.ie n \{\
\h'-04'\(bu\h'+03'\c
.\}
.el \{\
.sp -1
.IP \(bu 2.3
.\}
22 \- cert and key dbs patch error
.RE
.sp
.RS 4
.ie n \{\
\h'-04'\(bu\h'+03'\c
.\}
.el \{\
.sp -1
.IP \(bu 2.3
.\}
23 \- get default cert db error
.RE
.sp
.RS 4
.ie n \{\
\h'-04'\(bu\h'+03'\c
.\}
.el \{\
.sp -1
.IP \(bu 2.3
.\}
24 \- find cert by nickname error
.RE
.sp
.RS 4
.ie n \{\
\h'-04'\(bu\h'+03'\c
.\}
.el \{\
.sp -1
.IP \(bu 2.3
.\}
25 \- create export context error
.RE
.sp
.RS 4
.ie n \{\
\h'-04'\(bu\h'+03'\c
.\}
.el \{\
.sp -1
.IP \(bu 2.3
.\}
26 \- PKCS12 add password itegrity error
.RE
.sp
.RS 4
.ie n \{\
\h'-04'\(bu\h'+03'\c
.\}
.el \{\
.sp -1
.IP \(bu 2.3
.\}
27 \- cert and key Safes creation error
.RE
.sp
.RS 4
.ie n \{\
\h'-04'\(bu\h'+03'\c
.\}
.el \{\
.sp -1
.IP \(bu 2.3
.\}
28 \- PKCS12 add cert and key error
.RE
.sp
.RS 4
.ie n \{\
\h'-04'\(bu\h'+03'\c
.\}
.el \{\
.sp -1
.IP \(bu 2.3
.\}
29 \- PKCS12 encode error
.RE
.SH "EXAMPLES"
.PP
\fBImporting Keys and Certificates\fR
.PP
The most basic usage of
\fBpk12util\fR
for importing a certificate or key is the PKCS#12 input file (\fB\-i\fR) and some way to specify the security database being accessed (either
\fB\-d\fR
for a directory or
\fB\-h\fR
for a token)\&.
.PP
pk12util \-i p12File [\-h tokenname] [\-v] [\-d [sql:]directory] [\-P dbprefix] [\-k slotPasswordFile|\-K slotPassword] [\-w p12filePasswordFile|\-W p12filePassword]
.PP
For example:
.PP

.sp
.if n \{\
.RS 4
.\}
.nf
# pk12util \-i /tmp/cert\-files/users\&.p12 \-d sql:/home/my/sharednssdb

Enter a password which will be used to encrypt your keys\&.
The password should be at least 8 characters long,
and should contain at least one non\-alphabetic character\&.

Enter new password: 
Re\-enter password: 
Enter password for PKCS12 file: 
pk12util: PKCS12 IMPORT SUCCESSFUL
.fi
.if n \{\
.RE
.\}
.PP
\fBExporting Keys and Certificates\fR
.PP
Using the
\fBpk12util\fR
command to export certificates and keys requires both the name of the certificate to extract from the database (\fB\-n\fR) and the PKCS#12\-formatted output file to write to\&. There are optional parameters that can be used to encrypt the file to protect the certificate material\&.
.PP
pk12util \-o p12File \-n certname [\-c keyCipher] [\-C certCipher] [\-m|\-\-key_len keyLen] [\-n|\-\-cert_key_len certKeyLen] [\-d [sql:]directory] [\-P dbprefix] [\-k slotPasswordFile|\-K slotPassword] [\-w p12filePasswordFile|\-W p12filePassword]
.PP
For example:
.sp
.if n \{\
.RS 4
.\}
.nf
# pk12util \-o certs\&.p12 \-n Server\-Cert \-d sql:/home/my/sharednssdb
Enter password for PKCS12 file: 
Re\-enter password: 
.fi
.if n \{\
.RE
.\}
.PP
\fBListing Keys and Certificates\fR
.PP
The information in a
\&.p12
file are not human\-readable\&. The certificates and keys in the file can be printed (listed) in a human\-readable pretty\-print format that shows information for every certificate and any public keys in the
\&.p12
file\&.
.PP
pk12util \-l p12File [\-h tokenname] [\-r] [\-d [sql:]directory] [\-P dbprefix] [\-k slotPasswordFile|\-K slotPassword] [\-w p12filePasswordFile|\-W p12filePassword]
.PP
For example, this prints the default ASCII output:
.sp
.if n \{\
.RS 4
.\}
.nf
# pk12util \-l certs\&.p12

Enter password for PKCS12 file: 
Key(shrouded):
    Friendly Name: Thawte Freemail Member\*(Aqs Thawte Consulting (Pty) Ltd\&. ID

    Encryption algorithm: PKCS #12 V2 PBE With SHA\-1 And 3KEY Triple DES\-CBC
        Parameters:
            Salt:
                45:2e:6a:a0:03:4d:7b:a1:63:3c:15:ea:67:37:62:1f
            Iteration Count: 1 (0x1)
Certificate:
    Data:
        Version: 3 (0x2)
        Serial Number: 13 (0xd)
        Signature Algorithm: PKCS #1 SHA\-1 With RSA Encryption
        Issuer: "E=personal\-freemail@thawte\&.com,CN=Thawte Personal Freemail C
            A,OU=Certification Services Division,O=Thawte Consulting,L=Cape T
            own,ST=Western Cape,C=ZA"
    
.fi
.if n \{\
.RE
.\}
.PP
Alternatively, the
\fB\-r\fR
prints the certificates and then exports them into separate DER binary files\&. This allows the certificates to be fed to another application that supports
\&.p12
files\&. Each certificate is written to a sequentially\-number file, beginning with
file0001\&.der
and continuing through
file000N\&.der, incrementing the number for every certificate:
.sp
.if n \{\
.RS 4
.\}
.nf
pk12util \-l test\&.p12 \-r
Enter password for PKCS12 file: 
Key(shrouded):
    Friendly Name: Thawte Freemail Member\*(Aqs Thawte Consulting (Pty) Ltd\&. ID

    Encryption algorithm: PKCS #12 V2 PBE With SHA\-1 And 3KEY Triple DES\-CBC
        Parameters:
            Salt:
                45:2e:6a:a0:03:4d:7b:a1:63:3c:15:ea:67:37:62:1f
            Iteration Count: 1 (0x1)
Certificate    Friendly Name: Thawte Personal Freemail Issuing CA \- Thawte Consulting

Certificate    Friendly Name: Thawte Freemail Member\*(Aqs Thawte Consulting (Pty) Ltd\&. ID
    
.fi
.if n \{\
.RE
.\}
.SH "PASSWORD ENCRYPTION"
.PP
PKCS#12 provides for not only the protection of the private keys but also the certificate and meta\-data associated with the keys\&. Password\-based encryption is used to protect private keys on export to a PKCS#12 file and, optionally, the entire package\&. If no algorithm is specified, the tool defaults to using
\fBPKCS12 V2 PBE with SHA1 and 3KEY Triple DES\-cbc\fR
for private key encryption\&.
\fBPKCS12 V2 PBE with SHA1 and 40 Bit RC4\fR
is the default for the overall package encryption when not in FIPS mode\&. When in FIPS mode, there is no package encryption\&.
.PP
The private key is always protected with strong encryption by default\&.
.PP
Several types of ciphers are supported\&.
.PP
Symmetric CBC ciphers for PKCS#5 V2
.RS 4
.sp
.RS 4
.ie n \{\
\h'-04'\(bu\h'+03'\c
.\}
.el \{\
.sp -1
.IP \(bu 2.3
.\}
DES\-CBC
.RE
.sp
.RS 4
.ie n \{\
\h'-04'\(bu\h'+03'\c
.\}
.el \{\
.sp -1
.IP \(bu 2.3
.\}
RC2\-CBC
.RE
.sp
.RS 4
.ie n \{\
\h'-04'\(bu\h'+03'\c
.\}
.el \{\
.sp -1
.IP \(bu 2.3
.\}
RC5\-CBCPad
.RE
.sp
.RS 4
.ie n \{\
\h'-04'\(bu\h'+03'\c
.\}
.el \{\
.sp -1
.IP \(bu 2.3
.\}
DES\-EDE3\-CBC (the default for key encryption)
.RE
.sp
.RS 4
.ie n \{\
\h'-04'\(bu\h'+03'\c
.\}
.el \{\
.sp -1
.IP \(bu 2.3
.\}
AES\-128\-CBC
.RE
.sp
.RS 4
.ie n \{\
\h'-04'\(bu\h'+03'\c
.\}
.el \{\
.sp -1
.IP \(bu 2.3
.\}
AES\-192\-CBC
.RE
.sp
.RS 4
.ie n \{\
\h'-04'\(bu\h'+03'\c
.\}
.el \{\
.sp -1
.IP \(bu 2.3
.\}
AES\-256\-CBC
.RE
.sp
.RS 4
.ie n \{\
\h'-04'\(bu\h'+03'\c
.\}
.el \{\
.sp -1
.IP \(bu 2.3
.\}
CAMELLIA\-128\-CBC
.RE
.sp
.RS 4
.ie n \{\
\h'-04'\(bu\h'+03'\c
.\}
.el \{\
.sp -1
.IP \(bu 2.3
.\}
CAMELLIA\-192\-CBC
.RE
.sp
.RS 4
.ie n \{\
\h'-04'\(bu\h'+03'\c
.\}
.el \{\
.sp -1
.IP \(bu 2.3
.\}
CAMELLIA\-256\-CBC
.RE
.RE
.PP
PKCS#12 PBE ciphers
.RS 4
.sp
.RS 4
.ie n \{\
\h'-04'\(bu\h'+03'\c
.\}
.el \{\
.sp -1
.IP \(bu 2.3
.\}
PKCS #12 PBE with Sha1 and 128 Bit RC4
.RE
.sp
.RS 4
.ie n \{\
\h'-04'\(bu\h'+03'\c
.\}
.el \{\
.sp -1
.IP \(bu 2.3
.\}
PKCS #12 PBE with Sha1 and 40 Bit RC4
.RE
.sp
.RS 4
.ie n \{\
\h'-04'\(bu\h'+03'\c
.\}
.el \{\
.sp -1
.IP \(bu 2.3
.\}
PKCS #12 PBE with Sha1 and Triple DES CBC
.RE
.sp
.RS 4
.ie n \{\
\h'-04'\(bu\h'+03'\c
.\}
.el \{\
.sp -1
.IP \(bu 2.3
.\}
PKCS #12 PBE with Sha1 and 128 Bit RC2 CBC
.RE
.sp
.RS 4
.ie n \{\
\h'-04'\(bu\h'+03'\c
.\}
.el \{\
.sp -1
.IP \(bu 2.3
.\}
PKCS #12 PBE with Sha1 and 40 Bit RC2 CBC
.RE
.sp
.RS 4
.ie n \{\
\h'-04'\(bu\h'+03'\c
.\}
.el \{\
.sp -1
.IP \(bu 2.3
.\}
PKCS12 V2 PBE with SHA1 and 128 Bit RC4
.RE
.sp
.RS 4
.ie n \{\
\h'-04'\(bu\h'+03'\c
.\}
.el \{\
.sp -1
.IP \(bu 2.3
.\}
PKCS12 V2 PBE with SHA1 and 40 Bit RC4 (the default for non\-FIPS mode)
.RE
.sp
.RS 4
.ie n \{\
\h'-04'\(bu\h'+03'\c
.\}
.el \{\
.sp -1
.IP \(bu 2.3
.\}
PKCS12 V2 PBE with SHA1 and 3KEY Triple DES\-cbc
.RE
.sp
.RS 4
.ie n \{\
\h'-04'\(bu\h'+03'\c
.\}
.el \{\
.sp -1
.IP \(bu 2.3
.\}
PKCS12 V2 PBE with SHA1 and 2KEY Triple DES\-cbc
.RE
.sp
.RS 4
.ie n \{\
\h'-04'\(bu\h'+03'\c
.\}
.el \{\
.sp -1
.IP \(bu 2.3
.\}
PKCS12 V2 PBE with SHA1 and 128 Bit RC2 CBC
.RE
.sp
.RS 4
.ie n \{\
\h'-04'\(bu\h'+03'\c
.\}
.el \{\
.sp -1
.IP \(bu 2.3
.\}
PKCS12 V2 PBE with SHA1 and 40 Bit RC2 CBC
.RE
.RE
.PP
PKCS#5 PBE ciphers
.RS 4
.sp
.RS 4
.ie n \{\
\h'-04'\(bu\h'+03'\c
.\}
.el \{\
.sp -1
.IP \(bu 2.3
.\}
PKCS #5 Password Based Encryption with MD2 and DES CBC
.RE
.sp
.RS 4
.ie n \{\
\h'-04'\(bu\h'+03'\c
.\}
.el \{\
.sp -1
.IP \(bu 2.3
.\}
PKCS #5 Password Based Encryption with MD5 and DES CBC
.RE
.sp
.RS 4
.ie n \{\
\h'-04'\(bu\h'+03'\c
.\}
.el \{\
.sp -1
.IP \(bu 2.3
.\}
PKCS #5 Password Based Encryption with SHA1 and DES CBC
.RE
.RE
.PP
With PKCS#12, the crypto provider may be the soft token module or an external hardware module\&. If the cryptographic module does not support the requested algorithm, then the next best fit will be selected (usually the default)\&. If no suitable replacement for the desired algorithm can be found, the tool returns the error
\fIno security module can perform the requested operation\fR\&.
.SH "NSS DATABASE TYPES"
.PP
NSS originally used BerkeleyDB databases to store security information\&. The last versions of these
\fIlegacy\fR
databases are:
.sp
.RS 4
.ie n \{\
\h'-04'\(bu\h'+03'\c
.\}
.el \{\
.sp -1
.IP \(bu 2.3
.\}
cert8\&.db for certificates
.RE
.sp
.RS 4
.ie n \{\
\h'-04'\(bu\h'+03'\c
.\}
.el \{\
.sp -1
.IP \(bu 2.3
.\}
key3\&.db for keys
.RE
.sp
.RS 4
.ie n \{\
\h'-04'\(bu\h'+03'\c
.\}
.el \{\
.sp -1
.IP \(bu 2.3
.\}
secmod\&.db for PKCS #11 module information
.RE
.PP
BerkeleyDB has performance limitations, though, which prevent it from being easily used by multiple applications simultaneously\&. NSS has some flexibility that allows applications to use their own, independent database engine while keeping a shared database and working around the access issues\&. Still, NSS requires more flexibility to provide a truly shared security database\&.
.PP
In 2009, NSS introduced a new set of databases that are SQLite databases rather than BerkleyDB\&. These new databases provide more accessibility and performance:
.sp
.RS 4
.ie n \{\
\h'-04'\(bu\h'+03'\c
.\}
.el \{\
.sp -1
.IP \(bu 2.3
.\}
cert9\&.db for certificates
.RE
.sp
.RS 4
.ie n \{\
\h'-04'\(bu\h'+03'\c
.\}
.el \{\
.sp -1
.IP \(bu 2.3
.\}
key4\&.db for keys
.RE
.sp
.RS 4
.ie n \{\
\h'-04'\(bu\h'+03'\c
.\}
.el \{\
.sp -1
.IP \(bu 2.3
.\}
pkcs11\&.txt, which is listing of all of the PKCS #11 modules contained in a new subdirectory in the security databases directory
.RE
.PP
Because the SQLite databases are designed to be shared, these are the
\fIshared\fR
database type\&. The shared database type is preferred; the legacy format is included for backward compatibility\&.
.PP
By default, the tools (\fBcertutil\fR,
\fBpk12util\fR,
\fBmodutil\fR) assume that the given security databases follow the more common legacy type\&. Using the SQLite databases must be manually specified by using the
\fBsql:\fR
prefix with the given security directory\&. For example:
.sp
.if n \{\
.RS 4
.\}
.nf
# pk12util \-i /tmp/cert\-files/users\&.p12 \-d sql:/home/my/sharednssdb
.fi
.if n \{\
.RE
.\}
.PP
To set the shared database type as the default type for the tools, set the
\fBNSS_DEFAULT_DB_TYPE\fR
environment variable to
\fBsql\fR:
.sp
.if n \{\
.RS 4
.\}
.nf
export NSS_DEFAULT_DB_TYPE="sql"
.fi
.if n \{\
.RE
.\}
.PP
This line can be set added to the
~/\&.bashrc
file to make the change permanent\&.
.PP
Most applications do not use the shared database by default, but they can be configured to use them\&. For example, this how\-to article covers how to configure Firefox and Thunderbird to use the new shared NSS databases:
.sp
.RS 4
.ie n \{\
\h'-04'\(bu\h'+03'\c
.\}
.el \{\
.sp -1
.IP \(bu 2.3
.\}
https://wiki\&.mozilla\&.org/NSS_Shared_DB_Howto
.RE
.PP
For an engineering draft on the changes in the shared NSS databases, see the NSS project wiki:
.sp
.RS 4
.ie n \{\
\h'-04'\(bu\h'+03'\c
.\}
.el \{\
.sp -1
.IP \(bu 2.3
.\}
https://wiki\&.mozilla\&.org/NSS_Shared_DB
.RE
.SH "SEE ALSO"
.PP
certutil (1)
.PP
modutil (1)
.PP
The NSS wiki has information on the new database design and how to configure applications to use it\&.
.sp
.RS 4
.ie n \{\
\h'-04'\(bu\h'+03'\c
.\}
.el \{\
.sp -1
.IP \(bu 2.3
.\}
https://wiki\&.mozilla\&.org/NSS_Shared_DB_Howto
.RE
.sp
.RS 4
.ie n \{\
\h'-04'\(bu\h'+03'\c
.\}
.el \{\
.sp -1
.IP \(bu 2.3
.\}
https://wiki\&.mozilla\&.org/NSS_Shared_DB
.RE
.SH "ADDITIONAL RESOURCES"
.PP
For information about NSS and other tools related to NSS (like JSS), check out the NSS project wiki at
\m[blue]\fBhttp://www\&.mozilla\&.org/projects/security/pki/nss/\fR\m[]\&. The NSS site relates directly to NSS code changes and releases\&.
.PP
Mailing lists: https://lists\&.mozilla\&.org/listinfo/dev\-tech\-crypto
.PP
IRC: Freenode at #dogtag\-pki
.SH "AUTHORS"
.PP
The NSS tools were written and maintained by developers with Netscape, Red Hat, Sun, Oracle, Mozilla, and Google\&.
.PP
Authors: Elio Maldonado <emaldona@redhat\&.com>, Deon Lackey <dlackey@redhat\&.com>\&.
.SH "LICENSE"
.PP
Licensed under the Mozilla Public License, v\&. 2\&.0\&. If a copy of the MPL was not distributed with this file, You can obtain one at http://mozilla\&.org/MPL/2\&.0/\&.
.SH "NOTES"
.IP " 1." 4
Mozilla NSS bug 836477
.RS 4
\%https://bugzilla.mozilla.org/show_bug.cgi?id=836477
.RE